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Articles by F. E. Marchlinski
Total Records ( 3 ) for F. E. Marchlinski
  E Valles , V Bazan and F. E. Marchlinski

Background— ECG criteria identifying epicardial (EPI) origin for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in nonischemic cardiomyopathy have not been determined. Endocardial (ENDO) and EPI basal left ventricle fibrosis characterizes the VT substrate.

Methods and Results— We assessed the QRS from 102 basal-superior/lateral EPI and 67 comparable ENDO pace maps in 14 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Pace mapping focused on low bipolar voltage areas. Published morphology criteria: q wave in lead I (QWLI) and no q waves in inferior leads and interval criteria: pseudo-delta wave ≥34 ms, intrinsicoid deflection time ≥85 ms, shortest RS complex ≥121 ms, and maximum deflection index ≥0.55 were assessed for ability to identify EPI origin. Sixteen EPI and 8 ENDO of the 34 mapped VTs (71%) in the study population and 14 EPI and 7 ENDO VTs from an 11-patient validation cohort were localized to basal-superior/lateral left ventricle and corroborated pacing data. A QWL1 was seen in EPI but not ENDO pace maps (91% versus 4%; P<0.001), identified 14 of 16 EPI VTs (sensitivity, 88%), and was seen in 1 of 8 ENDO VTs (specificity, 88%). None of the remaining criteria achieved similar sensitivity without specificity <50%. We identified 4 criteria (q waves in inferior leads, pseudo-delta wave ≥75 ms, maximum deflection index ≥0.59, and QWL1) having ≥95% specificity and ≥20% sensitivity in identifying EPI/ENDO origin for pace maps. This 4-step algorithm identified the origin in 109 of 115 pace maps (95%), 21 of 24 VTs (88%) in the study population, and 19 of 21 VTs (90%) in validation cohort.

Conclusions— Morphological ECG features that describe the initial QRS vector can help identify basal-superior/lateral EPI VTs in nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

  M. P Riley , E Zado , R Bala , D. J Callans , J Cooper , S Dixit , F Garcia , E. P Gerstenfeld , M. D Hutchinson , D Lin , V Patel , R Verdino and F. E. Marchlinski

The endocardial substrate for ventricular arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is thought to be caused by a progressive degenerative process. Many clinical decisions and treatment plans are guided by this pathophysiologic assumption, but the extent of progression of macroscopic endocardial scar and right ventricular (RV) dilatation have not been assessed.

Methods and Results—

Eleven patients with ARVD/C and ventricular tachycardia had 2 detailed sinus rhythm electroanatomic endocardial voltage maps (average, 291±122 points per map; range, 114 to 558 points) performed a mean of 57 months apart (minimum, 9 months) as part of ventricular tachycardia ablation procedures. Voltage-defined scar (<1.5 mV) and RV volume were measured by area and volume measurement software and compared. Two of the 11 patients had a clear increase in scar area (47 cm2; 32 cm2) confirmed by visual inspection. The remaining 9 (81%; 95% CI, 48% to 98%) patients had no increase (<10-cm2 difference) in scar area between studies. In contrast, 10 of the 11 patients had a significant increase in RV volume, with an average increase of 24% (212±67 mL to 263±52 mL; P≤0.01).


In patients with ARVD/C and ventricular tachycardia, progressive RV dilatation is the rule, and rapid progression of significant macroscopic endocardial scar occurs in only a subset of patients. These results have important management implications, suggesting that efforts to prevent RV dilatation in this population are needed and that an aggressive substrate-based ablation strategy offers the potential to provide long-term ventricular tachycardia control.

  P Leong Sit , E Zado , D. J Callans , F Garcia , D Lin , S Dixit , R Bala , M. P Riley , M. D Hutchinson , J Cooper , E. P Gerstenfeld and F. E. Marchlinski

Young patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) tend to be more symptomatic and less willing to take long-term medications, yet catheter ablation remains recommended as second-line therapy for AF regardless of age. This study seeks to characterize the effectiveness and risk of AF ablation in the young.

Methods and Results—

Consecutive (n=1548) patients who underwent 2038 AF ablation procedures were included. Major procedural complications and efficacy were analyzed on the basis of age at the initial procedure: <45 years (group 1), 45 to 54 years (group 2), 55 to 64 years (group 3), and ≥65 years (group 4). AF control was defined as no or rare AF on or off antiarrhythmic drugs. The primary outcome of AF control was similar in all groups; it was achieved in 87% in group 1, 88% in group 2, 88% in group 3, and 82% in group 4 (P=0.06). However, more group 1 patients demonstrated freedom from AF off antiarrhythmic drugs (76%) compared with group 2 at 68%, group 3 at 65%, and group 4 at 53% (P<0.001). There were no major complications in group 1, 10 (1.7%) in group 2, 14 (1.4%) in group 3, and 10 (2.6%) in group 4 (P=0.01).


In patients younger than 45 years, there is a lower major complication rate and a comparable efficacy rate, with a greater chance of being AF free without antiarrhythmic drugs. These findings suggest that it may be appropriate to consider ablative therapy as first-line therapy in this age group.

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