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Articles by F. B Hu
Total Records ( 5 ) for F. B Hu
  M Bes Rastrollo , N. M Wedick , T. Y Li and F. B Hu

Background: Data concerning the long-term association between nut consumption and weight change in a free-living population are sparse.

Objective: The objective was to determine the relation between nut consumption and long-term weight change.

Design: The participants were 51,188 women in the Nurses' Health Study II aged 20–45 y, who had no cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer. We prospectively evaluated the dietary intake of nuts and subsequent weight changes from 1991 to 1999.

Results: Women who reported eating nuts ≥2 times/wk had slightly less mean (± SE) weight gain (5.04 ± 0.12 kg) than did women who rarely ate nuts (5.55 ± 0.04 kg) (P for trend < 0.001). For the same comparison, when total nut consumption was subdivided into peanuts and tree nuts, the results were similar (ie, less weight gain in women eating either peanuts or tree nuts ≥2 times/wk). The results were similar in normal-weight, overweight, and obese participants. In multivariate analyses in which lifestyle and other dietary factors were controlled for, we found that greater nut consumption (≥2 times/wk compared with never/almost never) was associated with a slightly lower risk of obesity (hazard ratio: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.02; P for trend = 0.003).

Conclusions: Higher nut consumption was not associated with greater body weight gain during 8 y of follow-up in healthy middle-aged women. Instead, it was associated with a slightly lower risk of weight gain and obesity. The results of this study suggest that incorporating nuts into diets does not lead to greater weight gain and may help weight control.

  W Zhang , K Sun , Y Yang , H Zhang , F. B Hu and R. Hui

Background: Hyperuricemia has been positively associated with hypertension, but whether this association is independent of adiposity and other cardiovascular risk factors remains a matter of debate.

Methods: We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study comprising 7220 participants (mean age 37 years; 73.8% men) in the Qingdao Port Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in China, who were free from hypertension at study entry in 1999–2000. During 4-year follow-up, 1370 men (19.0%) and 208 women (11.0%) had developed hypertension.

Results: After adjustment for age, body mass index, and other covariates, the relative risks (RRs) of developing hypertension comparing the highest and lowest uric acid quartiles were 1.55 (95% CI 1.10–2.19; P for trend <0.001) for men and 1.91 (1.12–3.25; P for trend <0.001) for women. After additional adjustment for abdominal obesity, the RRs comparing the participants in the highest and lowest quartiles of uric acid were 1.39 (1.16–1.68; P for trend 0.003) for men and 1.85 (1.06–3.24; P for trend 0.006) for women. In joint analysis, compared with those in the lowest uric acid quartile and without abdominal obesity, participants who were in the highest quartile and also had abdominal obesity had a 3.0- and 3.4-fold greater risk of incident hypertension (1.56–3.97 for men and 2.10–3.81 for women, respectively).

Conclusions: These data suggest a positive association between plasma uric acid and incidence of hypertension during short-term follow-up in a Chinese population. The association between hyperuricemia and hypertension was partly mediated by abdominal obesity.

  J Lin , F. B Hu and G. C. Curhan

Background and objectives: Sparse longitudinal data exist on how diet influences microalbuminuria and estimated GFR (eGFR) decline in people with well-preserved kidney function.

Design, settings, participants, & measurements: Of the 3348 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study who had data on urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in 2000, 3296 also had data on eGFR change between 1989 and 2000. Cumulative average intake of nutrients over 14 years was derived from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires answered in 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. Microalbuminuria presence and eGFR decline ≥30% were the outcomes of interest.

Results: Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of animal fat (odds ratio (OR): 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 2.64) and two or more servings of red meat per week (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.26) were directly associated with microalbuminuria. After adjustment for other nutrients individually associated with eGFR decline ≥30%, only the highest quartile of sodium intake remained directly associated (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.10 to 2.09), whereas β-carotene appeared protective (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43 to 0.89). Results did not vary by diabetes status for microalbuminuria and eGFR outcomes or in those without hypertension at baseline for eGFR decline. No significant associations were seen for other types of protein, fat, vitamins, folate, fructose, or potassium.

Conclusions: Higher dietary intake of animal fat and two or more servings per week of red meat may increase risk for microalbuminuria. Lower sodium and higher β-carotene intake may reduce risk for eGFR decline.

  W Zhang , E Lopez Garcia , T. Y Li , F. B Hu and R. M. van Dam

Coffee consumption has been linked to detrimental acute metabolic and hemodynamic effects. We investigated coffee consumption in relation to risk of CVDs and mortality in diabetic men.


We conducted a prospective cohort study including 3,497 diabetic men without CVD at baseline.


After adjustment for age, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors, relative risks (RRs) were 0.88 (95% CI 0.50–1.57) for CVDs (P for trend = 0.29) and 0.80 (0.41–1.54) for all-cause mortality (P for trend = 0.45) for the consumption of ≥4 cups/day of caffeinated coffee compared with those for non–coffee drinkers. Stratification by smoking and duration of diabetes yielded similar results. RRs for caffeine intake for the highest compared with the lowest quintile were 1.02 (0.70–1.47; P for trend = 0.96) for CVDs and 0.96 (0.64–1.44; P for trend = 0.69) for mortality.


These data indicate that regular coffee consumption is not associated with increased risk for CVDs or mortality in diabetic men.

  Y Wu , H Li , R. J. F Loos , Q Qi , F. B Hu , Y Liu and X. Lin

We previously found that plasma RBP4 levels were strongly associated with metabolic syndrome components. This study aimed to determine whether RBP4 variants are associated with the metabolic syndrome components and plasma RBP4 levels, and to investigate whether the associations between plasma RBP4 and the metabolic syndrome components are causal. Five tagSNPs were tested for their associations with plasma RBP4 levels and metabolic syndrome components in a population-based sample of 3,210 Chinese Hans. A possible causal relationship between plasma RBP4 levels and hypertriglyceridemia was explored by Mendelian randomization. Plasma RBP4 levels were significantly associated with rs10882273 (βz –0.10SD[–0.17, –0.03], P = 0.0050), rs3758538 (βz –0.13SD[–0.24, –0.02], P = 0.0249) in all participants, and with rs17108993 in Shanghai participants (βz –0.19SD[–0.32, –0.05], P = 0.0061). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3758538 was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR 0.62[0.45–0.85], P = 0.0026) and triglycerides (βz –0.19SD[–0.30, –0.07], P = 0.001) in all participants. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the observed effect size of association between rs3758538 and hypertriglyceridemia was different from the expected effect size (P = 0.0213). This is the first study to show that the RBP4 variants are significantly associated with plasma RBP4 levels and hypertriglyceridemia risk in Chinese Hans. However, results of Mendelian randomization do not support the hypothesis that RBP4 levels are causally related to hypertriglyceridemia risk.

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