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Articles by F. Azam
Total Records ( 8 ) for F. Azam
  A.J. Khan , F. Azam , A. Ali , M. Tariq and M. Amin
  Ten elite wheat breeding lines were evaluated for yield and yield components under rainfed conditions at Peshawar. Genotypic and phenotypic associations between the characters and their direct and indirect effects on grain yield were analyzed. Plant height showed positive correlation only with spikelets per spike and was negatively correlated with the other studied characters. Positive correlation of tillers per plant was observed with all the traits except spikelets per spike. Spike length was found to be positively correlated with spikelets per spike and grain yield and negatively so with 1000-grain weight. Significantly negative correlation of spikelets per spike was observed with 1000 grain weight and grain yield. Correlation coefficient between 1000-grain weight and grain yield ha-1 was positive and significant. Overall tillers per plant, spike length and 1000-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield while plant height and spikelets per spike were negative and significantly (p<0.05) correlated with grain yield. Path analysis indicated that tillers per plant had the highest positive direct effect on grain yield followed by spikelets per spike and 1000-grain weight, whereas plant height and spike length had negative direct effect on this parameter.
  S. Farooq and F. Azam
  Not Available
  A. Lodhi and F. Azam
  The effect of Baythroid (an insecticide) on dry matter yield and N yield of maize (Zea mays L.) was observed with particular emphasis on the uptake of N from soil and applied (15NH4)2SO4. Baythroid was applied @ of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 mg kg-1 and N @ of 25 mg kg-1. The plants were harvested at two growth intervals i.e., 22 days and 47 days after sowing. At the two lower rates, Baythroid had no significant effect on dry matter yield of plants, while at the highest rate studied i.e., 6.4 mg kg-1, it had a negative effect. Maximum beneficial effect of Baythroid on dry matter yield and N uptake was observed at 3.2 mg kg-1. Trends in total plant N were similar to that for dry matter yield and a close correlation was observed between the two parameters. Baythroid application resulted in a significant increase in the uptake of both applied N and native soil N and the losses of applied N were substantially reduced.
  M.H. Sajjad , H.N. Bhatti , A. Lodhi and F. Azam
  Soil samples amended with powdered plant material of wheat, maize, and sesbania were incubated for 8 weeks at moisture content of 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and 22-26oC for 8 weeks. At 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of incubation, portions of soil were analyzed for I) total C and its distribution in humic and fulvic acid fractions and ii) optical properties of humic acid. Humus fractions were extracted with both sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7). Higher amounts of humus C were extracted with NaOH than with Na4P2O7; the treatment differences were more obvious in former. Organic amendment resulted in higher amounts of humic and fulvic acid; more humus C being found in soil amended with maize and wheat. More N was determined in humic acid compared with fulvic acid following the extraction of soil with NaOH. Nature of organic amendment and the extractant used had a significant effect on C/N ratio of humic compounds. Optical density of the humic acid fraction decreased at the increasing wavelength and was correlated significantly with the C content of humic acid. Duration of incubation and nature of amendment had a significant effect on the polymerization and maturity of the humic acid fraction.
  Z. Ahmad , F. Azam , T. Mahmood , M. Arshad and S. Nadeem
  A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to evaluate the effect of calcium carbide (as a source of ethylene) on some agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Inqalab-91) that was grown without or with two levels of N, P and K fertilizers (120-90-60 kg ha-1 and 60-45-30 kg ha-1). Half dose of N and full dose of P and K was applied at sowing while remaining half after one week of germination. Calcium carbide as a source of ethylene was applied at 60 kg ha-1 after 2 and 8 weeks of germination. A factorial completely randomized design was followed with nine treatments each with three replicates. Data regarding plant height, number of tillers, length of spike, number of spikelets spike-1 and grain yield was recorded. Plant height, number of tillers and spike length were significantly affected when CaC2 was applied after one week of germination while number of spikelets and grain yield was maximum when CaC2 was applied after 8 weeks of germination.
  M. Ashraf , A. Gulnaz , S.R.A. Shamsi and F. Azam
  A substantial portion of fertilizer N is lost from foliar parts of plants. However, the data on this aspect of gaseous N loss is sketchy due to the limitations existing with the methodologies. A simple and economical method was devised and standardized for studying such type of N losses. The results demonstrated the suitability of the method for the quantification of oxidized and reduced N gases evolved/absorbed from foliar parts of the plants especially the plants with low leaf area.
  F. Azam
  Nitrogen (N) is the key nutrient element, limiting crop production under most situations. A major reason for insufficient N supplies being its presence in soil in organic forms which must be mineralized before being used by the plants. However, leguminous plants are equipped with the facility to acquire a major portion of N directly from atmospheric N2 through bacterial fixation (reduction). The bacteria (Rhizobium spp) reside inside the special structures on plant roots i.e., nodules and reduce atmospheric N at the expense of C supplied by the plant. This paper presents an analysis of the nature of association between the legume and bacterium.
  F. Azam and M.H. Sajjad
  External heating of soil samples following addition of dichromate is a commonly used method for the determination of organic carbon (C). We have successfully standardized microwave oven as a source of external heating for reliable and quick determination of organic C in soil samples by colorimetric method. Ten soils varying in C content were collected from agricultural fields differing in physico-chemical and other characteristics. The method involves: I) addition of 8 mL of conc. H2SO4 and 5 mL of 2N K2Cr2O7 solution to soil samples containing ca 5 mg C and placed in 100 mL glass beakers, ii) heating the treated samples in a microwave oven with rotating plate, iii) dilution of the contents of the beaker to 50 mL with distilled water, iv) determination of optical density of the samples at 590 nm, v) calculations for C content against a glucose standard (5 mg C mL-1 solution; 1.25 g glucose 100-1 mL) treated like the samples. The newly developed method gives values of C lower than those obtained with the conventional colorimetric method and Walkley-Black method. However, almost perfect correlations existed between the values obtained by the three methods. Regression equations thus developed can conveniently be used for the accurate measurement of organic C in soil samples. Time of heating in microwave oven that varied from 45 to 120 sec did not have a significant bearing on the amount of C determined. Hence, heating for 60 sec can conveniently be adopted for routine analysis. The proposed method is not only quick but highly economical in terms of energy used in heating the samples.
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