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Articles by F Yao
Total Records ( 2 ) for F Yao
  F Yao and H. G. Muller
 

We extend the common linear functional regression model to the case where the dependency of a scalar response on a functional predictor is of polynomial rather than linear nature. Focusing on the quadratic case, we demonstrate the usefulness of the polynomial functional regression model, which encompasses linear functional regression as a special case. Our approach works under mild conditions for the case of densely spaced observations and also can be extended to the important practical situation where the functional predictors are derived from sparse and irregular measurements, as is the case in many longitudinal studies. A key observation is the equivalence of the functional polynomial model with a regression model that is a polynomial of the same order in the functional principal component scores of the predictor processes. Theoretical analysis as well as practical implementations are based on this equivalence and on basis representations of predictor processes. We also obtain an explicit representation of the regression surface that defines quadratic functional regression and provide functional asymptotic results for an increasing number of model components as the number of subjects in the study increases. The improvements that can be gained by adopting quadratic as compared to linear functional regression are illustrated with a case study that includes absorption spectra as functional predictors.

  Q Zhang , F Yao , M. K Raizada , S. T O'Rourke and C. Sun
 

The peripheral apelin system plays a significant role in cardiovascular homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. However, the central effect of this neurohormonal system in neural control of cardiovascular function remains poorly understood. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of apelin in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on blood pressure, cardiac function, and sympathetic nerve activity. Apelin mRNA and protein levels were detected with real-time RT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Expression of apelin was significantly enhanced in the RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared with normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats. To study the functional consequence of upregulated apelin expression, apelin was overexpressed by bilateral microinjection of the AAV2-apelin viral vector into the RVLM of WKY rats. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blots demonstrated that microinjection of AAV2-apelin into the RVLM resulted in a significant increase in apelin expression, which was associated with a chronic elevation in blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, direct microinjection of exogenous apelin-13 (200 pmol in 50 nL) into the RVLM caused a 20 mm Hg elevation in blood pressure and a 24% increase in sympathetic nerve activity. The present study is the first to show that apelin expression is enhanced in the RVLM of SHR versus WKY rats and that overexpression of this gene in the RVLM results in chronic blood pressure elevation and cardiac hypertrophy in normotensive rats. Thus, the apelin system in the RVLM may play a very important role in central blood pressure regulation and in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

 
 
 
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