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Articles by F Nishijima
Total Records ( 3 ) for F Nishijima
  H Fujii , F Nishijima , S Goto , M Sugano , H Yamato , R Kitazawa , S Kitazawa and M. Fukagawa

Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVD in CKD patients. The oral charcoal adsorbent AST-120 attenuates the progression of CKD possibly by removing uraemic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate (IS), and reduces oxidative stress. We investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and cardiac damage in CKD and its prevention by AST-120.

Methods. Male Lewis rats were administered adriamycin at 8 weeks of age, and the right kidney was removed at 12 weeks of age. From 14 weeks of age, the rats were treated daily with AST-120 (n = 8) or were untreated (control group, n = 8). At 34 weeks of age, the rats were killed and urinary and blood biochemical tests as well as cardiac histological analyses were performed.

Results. At 14 weeks of age, there were no significant differences in blood pressure, renal function (creatinine clearance: 1.54 ± 0.28 mL/min versus 1.60 ± 0.22 mL/min), oxidative stress markers or other biochemical data between the control and AST-120 groups. At 34 weeks, despite similar blood pressure and renal function (creatinine clearance: 0.78 ± 0.46 mL/min versus 0.75 ± 0.54 mL/min), serum concentrations of IS and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), acrolein and IS were significantly lower in the AST-120 group than in the control group. Heart volume, left ventricular volume and cardiac fibrosis were significantly smaller in the experimental AST-120 group than in the control group. Immunohistological analysis revealed that the numbers of 8-OHdG- and acrolein-positive cardiomyocytes and the degrees of myocardial and perivascular fibrosis were ameliorated by AST-120 administration. The myocardial fibrosis score was significantly associated with the 8-OHdG- (r = 0.848, P < 0.001) and acrolein-positive (r = 0.812, P < 0.001) cell scores. The perivascular fibrosis score was also significantly associated with the 8-OHdG- (r = 0.906, P < 0.0001) and acrolein-positive (r = 0.789, P < 0.001) cell scores.

Conclusions. Oxidative stress is suggested to play a key role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in CKD. AST-120 may suppress oxidative stress and reduce cardiac damage in CKD.

  H Shimizu , Y Hirose , F Nishijima , Y Tsubakihara and H. Miyazaki

Patients with chronic renal failure are at greater risk of developing atherosclerosis than healthy individuals, and recent data suggest that the putative uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) promotes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effects of IS on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with respect to reactive oxygen species (ROS), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). IS induced the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and synergistically enhanced their PDGF-induced migration as well as proliferation. The effects of PDGF were promoted after a 24-h incubation with IS despite the absence of IS during PDGF stimulation. Intracellular ROS levels were increased in the presence of IS, and PDGF-dependent ROS production was augmented by a prior 24-h incubation with IS even in the absence of IS during PDGF stimulation. These data suggest that IS increases the sensitivity of VSMCs to PDGF. IS also phosphorylated PDGF-β-receptors and upregulated PDGF-β receptor but not -receptor protein expression in the absence of exogenous PDGF. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium blocked IS-dependent increase in receptor expression. Administration of IS to nephrectomized rats also elevated receptor protein expression in arterial VSMCs. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, PDGF-β receptors, extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK), and p38 MAPK all inhibited IS-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation. Taken together, these findings indicate that IS induces the migration as well as proliferation of VSMCs through PDGF-β receptors and that ROS generation is critically involved in this process, which promotes the development of atherosclerosis.

  H Shimizu , D Bolati , A Adijiang , A Enomoto , F Nishijima , M Dateki and T. Niwa

Various uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and one of them is indoxyl sulfate, which accelerates the progression of CRF through unknown mechanisms. The present study investigates how indoxyl sulfate promotes CRF using the proximal tubular cell line HK-2 and CRF rats. Indoxyl sulfate inhibited serum-induced cell proliferation and promoted the activation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, and the expression of -smooth muscle actin (-SMA), a marker of fibrosis, through inducing p53 expression and phosphorylation. Pifithrin-, p-nitro, a p53 inhibitor, blocked these effects. Indoxyl sulfate evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited indoxyl sulfate-induced p53 expression and phosphorylation, as well as indoxyl sulfate-induced -SMA expression. We previously demonstrated that although cellular senescence and fibrosis are detectable in the kidneys of CRF rats, the oral adsorbent AST-120 repressed these effects. Here, we found that β-galactosidase, p53 and -SMA were expressed and colocalized in the renal tubules of CRF rats, whereas AST-120 decreased the expression of these genes. Taken together, these findings indicate that indoxyl sulfate induces the expression and phosphorylation of p53 though ROS production, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cellular senescence and renal fibrosis.

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