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Articles by F Lu
Total Records ( 4 ) for F Lu
  R Jhanjee , G. A Templeton , S Sattiraju , J Nguyen , S Sakaguchi , F Lu , C Ermis , S Milstein , L Van Heel , K. G Lurie and D. G. Benditt

Background— Clinical experience suggests that atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATs) are a frequent comorbidity in heart failure patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and that volume overload may increase AT susceptibility. However, substantiating this apparent relationship in free-living patients is difficult. Recently, certain implantable cardioverter-defibrillators provide, by measuring transpulmonary electric bioimpedance, an index of intrathoracic fluid status (OptiVol index [OI]). The goal of this study was to determine whether periods of greater intrathoracic fluid congestion (as detected by OI) correspond with increased AT event frequency.

Methods and Results— This analysis retrospectively assessed the relation between AT events and OI estimate of volume overload in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and OI-capable implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. OI values were stratified into 3 levels: group 1, <40; group 2, 40 to 60; and group 3, >60. An OI threshold-crossing event was defined as OI≥60, a value previously associated with clinically significant volume overload. Findings in 59 patients (mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 24%) with 225 follow-up visits (mean, 3.8 visits per patient) were evaluated. AT prevalence was 73%. AT frequency (percent of patients visits with at least 1 episode of AT since previous device interrogation) was greater in group 3 versus group 1 (P=0.0342). Finally, in terms of temporal sequence, AT episodes preceded OI threshold-crossing event in 43% of incidences, followed threshold-crossing event in 29%, and was simultaneous or indeterminate in the remainder.

Conclusions— These findings not only support the view that worsening pulmonary congestion is associated with increased AT frequency in patients with left ventricular dysfunction but also suggest that AT events may be responsible for triggering episodic pulmonary congestion more often than previously suspected.

  M Hedenstrom , S Wiklund Lindstrom , T Oman , F Lu , L Gerber , P Schatz , B Sundberg and J. Ralph

2D 13C–1H HSQC NMR spectroscopy of acetylated cell walls in solution gives a detailed fingerprint that can be used to assess the chemical composition of the complete wall without extensive degradation. We demonstrate how multivariate analysis of such spectra can be used to visualize cell wall changes between sample types as high-resolution 2D NMR loading spectra. Changes in composition and structure for both lignin and polysaccharides can subsequently be interpreted on a molecular level. The multivariate approach alleviates problems associated with peak picking of overlapping peaks, and it allows the deduction of the relative importance of each peak for sample discrimination. As a first proof of concept, we compare Populus tension wood to normal wood. All well established differences in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin compositions between these wood types were readily detected, confirming the reliability of the multivariate approach. In a second example, wood from transgenic Populus modified in their degree of pectin methylesterification was compared to that of wild-type trees. We show that differences in both lignin and polysaccharide composition that are difficult to detect with traditional spectral analysis and that could not be a priori predicted were revealed by the multivariate approach. 2D NMR of dissolved cell wall samples combined with multivariate analysis constitutes a novel approach in cell wall analysis and provides a new tool that will benefit cell wall research.

  J Wang , L Zou , S Huang , F Lu , X Lang , L Han , Z Song and Z. Xu

To clarify the role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; GSTM1 and GSTT1) status in susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD), a meta-analysis of published studies was performed. A total of 19 studies including 8020 cases and 11 501 controls were included in this meta-analysis. In a combined analysis, the relative risks for CHD of the GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null polymorphisms were 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–2.01] and 1.26 (95% CI: 0.90–1.75), respectively. Three potential sources of heterogeneity including ethnicity, source of control and sample size of study were also assessed. However, no significant association was found in stratified analyses. By pooling data from eight studies (2909 cases and 3745 controls) that considered combinations of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes, a statistically significant increased risk for CHD [odds ratio (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.03–5.48)] was detected for individuals with combined deletion mutations in both genes compared with positive genotypes. Results from the meta-analysis of five studies on GSTs stratified according to smoking status showed an increased risk for individuals with null genotype (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.24–3.92 for GSTM1 and OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.49–7.26 for GSTT1) versus non-null genotypes. This meta-analysis suggests that the GSTM1 null genotype may slightly increase the risk of CHD and that interaction between unfavourable GSTs genotypes may exist.

  S Atwell , C. G Brouillette , K Conners , S Emtage , T Gheyi , W. B Guggino , J Hendle , J. F Hunt , H. A Lewis , F Lu , I. I Protasevich , L. A Rodgers , R Romero , S. R Wasserman , P. C Weber , D Wetmore , F. F Zhang and X. Zhao

Upon removal of the regulatory insert (RI), the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be heterologously expressed and purified in a form that remains stable without solubilizing mutations, stabilizing agents or the regulatory extension (RE). This protein, NBD1 387–646(405–436), crystallizes as a homodimer with a head-to-tail association equivalent to the active conformation observed for NBDs from symmetric ATP transporters. The 1.7-Å resolution X-ray structure shows how ATP occupies the signature LSGGQ half-site in CFTR NBD1. The F508 version of this protein also crystallizes as a homodimer and differs from the wild-type structure only in the vicinity of the disease-causing F508 deletion. A slightly longer construct crystallizes as a monomer. Comparisons of the homodimer structure with this and previously published monomeric structures show that the main effect of ATP binding at the signature site is to order the residues immediately preceding the signature sequence, residues 542–547, in a conformation compatible with nucleotide binding. These residues likely interact with a transmembrane domain intracellular loop in the full-length CFTR channel. The experiments described here show that removing the RI from NBD1 converts it into a well-behaved protein amenable to biophysical studies yielding deeper insights into CFTR function.

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