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Articles by Essam A. El-Gendy
Total Records ( 5 ) for Essam A. El-Gendy
  Essam A. El-Gendy , Mostafa K. Nassar and Ahmed Mostageer
  This study aimed to assess the variation in growth patterns of the warm region breeds in response to the intermittent prolonged heat stress conditions. Three warm region breeds (Fayoumi, Sinai Bedouin and White Baladi) and a commercial broiler strain were brooded for 8 wks in two thermal (heating and non-heating) treatments. The target ambient temperature in the heating treatment was 35°C from hatch to 4 wks of age (early prolonged heating period), declined to 24-25°C during the 5th and 6th wks (heat termination period), then raised to 35°C during the 7th and 8th weeks (re-heating period). The optimum brooding temperatures were provided in the non-heating treatment. The effect of heat on growth was breed-dependent. All heated chicks practiced a compensatory growth during the heat termination period. Early prolonged heat exposure did not provide broiler and Sinai Bedouin chicks with a heat reference to challenge the late re-heating. Reference to heat tolerance was rather limited to the age, body size and duration of heat exposure. Fayoumi and White Baladi chicks were not mostly influenced by heat allover the experimental period. The sex differences in Growth Rate (GR) in heated and non-heated birds were similar, thus the variation in GR between both sexes in heating conditions were due to normal sex variation. No significant differences were found between the variance estimates in GR of heated and non-heated broiler chicks, evincing lack of the genetic background for heat tolerance. The variance estimates in GR of heated Sinai Bedouin and Fayoumi males and females were significantly larger than those of the non-heated correspondents, evincing the existence of a genetic background for heat tolerance. The results indicate the feasibility of exploiting the genetic potential of the warm regions` oriented breeds in appropriate breeding programs.
  Essam A. El-Gendy
  A breeding program aims to develop a chicken population inherent for heat tolerance and fast growth was started using a naked-neck local breed in Egypt that performs heat tolerance. The local breed was crossed with the sire line of a normally feathered commercial broiler strain. The crossbreds were raised in a heating treatment (35oC from hatch to 6 weeks, then reduced to 24oC) or a non-heating treatment (35oC from hatch to 3 days, and reduced gradually to reach 24°C). Body weights of the crossbreds, across ages, were significantly around twofold heavier than those of the locals. The crossbreds weighed 641.8 g at 6 weeks of age versus 303.0 g for the locals. The 2-4 week growth rate was 73.7% for the crossbreds versus 60.2% for the locals. The Na/na crossbreds were significantly heavier than na/na crossbreds when heated, and the differences were not significant when non-heated. The spread of 6-week body weights of the crossbreds was remarkably different from that of the locals and the difference was mainly attributed to the variation brought in through the flow of genes. The heterotic effects on body weights were significant in both heated and non-heated crossbreds and expressed a large source of non-additive genetic variation. Heterosis estimates in body weights and growth rates were age and environment specific, and were significantly higher for the heated than for non-heated crossbreds, indicating the flow of genes influence growth and heat tolerance. The results demonstrate remarkable changes in the frequencies of non-allelic genes that influence growth and propose the genetic selection for increased 6-week body weight in the naked-neck and normally feathered crossbreds.
  Essam A. El-Gendy
  This study aimed at adopting the developmental changes in the internal organs and bilateral traits of growing chickens selected five generations for increased 6-week body weight and genotyping for normal feathering (line F) or naked-necks (line N), compared to their corresponding genetic controls (lines CF and CN). Line N had the smallest weight percentages of total lungs and liver (0.54 and 2.38%) and biggest weight percentages of right and left shanks (2.46 and 2.48%). Line F had the smallest spleen weight percentage (0.20%) and tallest right and left shanks (8.50 and 8.57 cm) and widest right and left shanks (3.74 and 3.75 cm). Gizzard weight percentages of lines N and CN (3.37 and 3.55%) were significantly more than those of lines F and CF (2.74 and 3.00%). The results indicated that neither short-term selection nor Na allele have influenced the development of heart. Na allele showed variable pleiotropic effects, where the weight percentages of lungs and liver were decreased and the weight percentages of gizzard and spleen were increased. A reduction in lung and liver weight percentages characterized the naked-neck selected line, revealing an interaction between selection and Na allele. The pressure of short-term selection for body weight was early noticeable on the development of liver and spleen that could initiate possible metabolic disorders or susceptibility to disease infection later with the continuity of selection scheme. Short-term selection albeit boosted the bilateral shank measurements, but did not influence the bilateral developmental stability. The developmental stability characterized the bilateral characters in chickens carrying Na allele, suggesting a role of Na allele in the developmental stability of the birds pertaining the natural heating waves. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that the bilateral asymmetries of different characters are not significantly associated.
  Essam A. El-Gendy , Esteftah M. El-Komy , Ahmed A. El-Far , Abdel Khalek A. El-Gamry and Gamal M. El-Mallah
  An experiment was conducted to assess the variation in blood metabolic constituents in a local chicken line (CE1) selected five generations for increased 6-wk body weight. Also, line CE1 was reciprocally crossed with a Slow-Growing Commercial Broiler Strain (SGB). The local genetic control line (CRB) was used for genetic comparison. No significant differences were observed in the blood levels of total proteins, albumin, globulin and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio among lines CE1 and CRB in both parental (P) and progeny (F1) generations. In P generation, total protein levels of 2.22 and 2.16 g/dl were obtained for lines CE1 and CRB and were significantly higher than 1.78 g/dl for strain SGB. Line CE1 had triglyceride level of 178.76 mg/dl which was significantly higher than 122.13 mg/dl for line CRB. Similar trend for the blood lipid metabolites were obtained in F1 generation. Sex variation in body weight although was obvious, the selection pressure on sex variation in metabolic activity was not existed. Significant heterosis estimates of -22.56 and 5.0% were obtained for the levels of total lipids and cholesterol. The heterosis estimates in the levels of total proteins, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio and triglycerides were -23.71, 9.94, -33.66, 14.97 and -3.63%, but lacked significance. Although heterosis estimates were mostly insignificant, they indicated that the metabolic activity could be drastically changed by crossing. The drastic change in the metabolic activity was too early to be noticeable in a short-term selection program. Selection pressure was more obvious in lipid metabolites, particularly triglycerides, than in protein metabolites. Highly moderate negative and significant correlation coefficient was obtained between globulin level and cholesterol level. The variable correlation relationships among blood metabolites and the insignificant correlations between blood metabolites and body weights did not reflect the continuous metabolic and tissue remodeling associated with growth. This could be due to the small size that characterizes local chickens of warm regions or the shortness of selection scheme that did not result in an obvious change in the metabolic activity.
  Essam A. El-Gendy , Marwa M. Ahmed , Shoukry M. El-Tantawy and Shawki A. Ibrahim
  An experiment was carried out to study the changes in fertilization capacity of rooster sperms in response to the modification in the biochemical composition of the semen. Chickens of two lines (CE2 and CE4) were used. Seven treatments of semen were designed and included the incubation of sperm with the plasmid, with a mixture of the plasmid and lipofectin at 2.5 or 5% concentration and the incubation of spermatozoa with lipofectin and a semen extender (BPSE). The progenies were obtained from the insemination of hens by the semen of different treatments. Sperm motility was greatly influenced by the treatments. Motility was significantly the highest in the control semen and averaged 92.42% and highly significantly declined to 52.08 and 58.75% in the semen samples treated with the plasmid, lipofectin at 2.5 or 5% concentration and diluted with BPSE. The percentage of live sperm was not affected by the addition of the plasmid. The addition of the plasmid and lipofectin or the dilutent BPSE resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms. The percentage of live sperms was 59-62% when the plasmid, lipofectin and BPSE were all together added to the semen samples. The percentages of dead and abnormally-shaped sperm reached to 26.88 and 17.13%, respectively, in the semen treated with plasmid, lipofectin 5% and BPSE. Fertility averaged 88.22% in the eggs of hens inseminated with the control semen and significantly decreased to 42.14% when semen was incubated with the plasmid pUC18 and reached to 58.98% when semen was treated with plasmid, lipofectin (5%) and BPSE.
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