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Articles by Eric Pearlman
Total Records ( 2 ) for Eric Pearlman
  Yoshifumi Imamura , Jyotsna Chandra , Pranab K. Mukherjee , Ali Abdul Lattif , Loretta B. Szczotka-Flynn , Eric Pearlman , Jonathan H. Lass , Kerry O’Donnell and Mahmoud A. Ghannoum
  Fungal keratitis is commonly caused by Fusarium species and less commonly by Candida species. Recent outbreaks of Fusarium keratitis were associated with contact lens wear and with ReNu with MoistureLoc contact lens care solution, and biofilm formation on contact lens/lens cases was proposed to play a role in this outbreak. However, no in vitro model for contact lens-associated fungal biofilm has been developed. In this study, we developed and characterized in vitro models of biofilm formation on various soft contact lenses using three species of Fusarium and Candida albicans. The contact lenses tested were etafilcon A, galyfilcon A, lotrafilcon A, balafilcon A, alphafilcon A, and polymacon. Our results showed that clinical isolates of Fusarium and C. albicans formed biofilms on all types of lenses tested and that the biofilm architecture varied with the lens type. Moreover, differences in hyphal content and architecture were found between the biofilms formed by these fungi. We also found that two recently isolated keratitis-associated fusaria formed robust biofilms, while the reference ATCC 36031 strain (recommended by the International Organization for Standardization guidelines for testing of disinfectants) failed to form biofilm. Furthermore, using the developed in vitro biofilm model, we showed that phylogenetically diverse planktonic fusaria and Candida were susceptible to MoistureLoc and MultiPlus. However, Fusarium biofilms exhibited reduced susceptibility against these solutions in a species- and time-dependent manner. This in vitro model should provide a better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of lens-related fungal keratitis.
  Angela C. Johnson , Xiaoxia Li and Eric Pearlman
  The adaptor molecule MyD88 is necessary for responses to all Toll-like receptors except TLR3 and a subset of TLR4 signaling events, which are mediated by the adaptor molecule TRIF. To determine the role of TRIF in host inflammatory responses, corneal epithelium of C57BL/6, TLR3-/-, TRIF-/-, and MyD88-/- mice was abraded and stimulated with the synthetic TLR3 ligand poly(I:C). We found that poly(I:C) induced a pronounced cellular infiltration into the corneal stroma, which was TLR3- and TRIF-dependent. Unexpectedly, the inflammatory response was exacerbated in MyD88-/- mice, with enhanced neutrophil and F4/80+ cell infiltration into the corneal stroma and elevated corneal haze, which is an indicator of loss of corneal transparency. To determine whether MyD88-dependent inhibition of TLR3/TRIF responses is a general phenomenon, we examined cytokine production by MyD88-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages; however, no significant difference was observed between MyD88+/+ or MyD88-/- macrophages. Incontrast, human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) transfected with MyD88 small interfering RNA had significantly increased (2.5-fold) CCL5/RANTES production compared with control HCECs, demonstrating a negative regulatory role for MyD88 in TLR3/TRIF responses in these cells. Finally, knockdown of MyD88 in HCECs resulted in increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not p38, IRF-3, or NF-κB. Consistent with this finding, the JNK inhibitor SP600125, but not p38 inhibitor SB203580, ablated this response. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a novel JNK-dependent inhibitory role for MyD88 in the TLR3/TRIF activation pathway.

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