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Articles by Emmanuel Mamma
Total Records ( 2 ) for Emmanuel Mamma
  Chinedu Imo , Chukwumaobim Daniel Uzochukwuwulu Nwokwu , Emmanuel Mamma , Mida Habila Mayel , Ayobami Jahdahunsi Kukoyi and Akunatu David Apaji
  Background and Objectives: Phoenix dactylifera fruit, Cyperus esculentus nut and Cocos nucifera nut are widely consumed as food in many parts of the world and are also the major ingredients in the preparation of certain drinks. This study examined the effects of ethanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera fruit, Cyperus esculentus nut and Cocos nucifera nut on selected indices of kidney function in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male albino rats used in this study were distributed randomly into four groups with five rats in each group. Group 1 served as normal control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 served as test animals. The corresponding plant extracts were administered to the animals in the test groups through oral route for three weeks. Thereafter, they were starved overnight, anaesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed. Blood samples and kidneys were collected from the animals for biochemical and histological analysis respectively. Results: The results showed that urea decreased in all the groups compared to the control. Urea decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 3 and 4, but decreased less-significantly (p>0.05) in group 2 compare to the control. Creatinine decreased less-significantly in group 2 and increased less-significantly in group 3 (p>0.05), but increased significantly in group 4 (p<0.05). Sodium, potassium and chlorides increased less-significantly (p>0.05) in all the test groups compared to the control. Sodium increased highest in group 2, potassium increased highest in group 3, while chlorides increased highest in group 4. The histoarchitectural states of the kidney sections showed that the extracts have no apparent toxic effects. However, there were some evidence of mildly altered parts of some kidney tissues. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the extracts have no apparent toxic effect on kidney function of the experimental rats. The results also showed the plant extracts may help to reduce the retention of urea, thereby supporting kidney functions. The three plant materials are therefore encouraged for use in general nutrition.
  Chukwuma Stephen Ezeonu , Verwiyeh Silas Tatah , Chinedu Imo , Emmanuel Mamma , Mida Habila Mayel , Ayobami Jahdahunsi Kukoyi and Ibrahim Adams Jeji
  Background and Objective: The processing and preservation of Irish potato tubers like many other crops has been affected by various pathogens like fungi (particularly storage rot) which causes a major constraint to Irish potato production in Nigeria resulting to enormous post-harvest spoilage. The inhibitory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of neem leaves, stem bark and seeds on fungal rot disease of Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato) as an alternative treatment for fungal storage disease on Irish potato tubers cultivated in Nigeria has been determined in this study. Materials and Methods: Neem parts were harvested from Wukari, Nigeria and were processed for the experiment. Isolation of fungi and sub-culturing of the isolates was carried out to obtain pure culture. Pathogenicity study was carried out and effect of the plant extracts on mycelia growth of the test fungi was studied using the food poisoning techniques. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies of the neem parts were carried out using standard methods. Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening of the selected parts of neem plant showed the presence of alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, steroids, tannins and saponins. The quantitative test revealed that the percentage quantity of phytochemicals in these plant parts ranged from 10.17-23.88%. Effect of the extracts on the test organisms was significant (p<0.05). Ethanolic extract of the seed (ESE) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger (88.37%) followed by aqueous extract of stem bark (ABE) (87.21%), while aqueous seed extract (ASE), ethanolic leaves extract (ELE), aqueous leaves extract (ALE) and ethanolic stem bark extract (EBE) exhibited inhibition of 81.78, 77.52, 72.87 and 39.53%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of EBE was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of other extracts, while there was no significant difference in the inhibitory effects of ESE, ASE and ABE compared to ketoconazole on Aspergillus niger. The ethanolic extracts of the seed and leaves had 100% inhibitory effect on Fusarium oxyporium with 87.60% inhibition by aqueous extract of the leaves. The seed and the leaves ethanolic extracts exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on Pythium spp. and Fusarium oxyporium, while the aqueous leaves extract showed the least inhibition on Fusarium oxyporium. Conclusion: The plant extracts in this study were found to be very effective in inhibiting fungal mycelia growth and hence can be potentially effective for preservation during storage of Irish potatoes to minimize post-harvest lost.
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