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Articles by Emmanuel Bajyana Songa
Total Records ( 2 ) for Emmanuel Bajyana Songa
  Francois Lyumugabe , Jacques Gros , Emmanuel Bajyana Songa and Philippe Thonart
  Three Eleusine coracana “finger millet” varieties (Musama, N161 and Mwamba) from Rwanda were studied with a view to improve the saccharification during the mashing of red sorghum malt (Kigufi, variety of Rwanda). Traditional mashing procedure (infusion) and decantation mashing procedure were employed and the produced worts were assessed for their brewing qualities. The findings prove that β-amylase activities of Musama (301.6 U mL–1), N161 (227.2 U mL–1) and Mwamba (112.6 U mL) malts were much higher than in Kigufi sorghum malt (73.3 U mL–1). The mashing of the mixture of sorghum malt with Rwandan finger millet (Musama variety) malt allowed to produce more fermentable sugars, particularly maltose, reaching amounts 2-fold higher than when pure sorghum malt was used. Moreover, when the decantation method is applied, the fermentable sugars content draws a 100% increase by comparison to the traditional mashing method (infusion). However, the free amino nitrogen content of the worts obtained by decantation mashing procedure was slightly lower than that of the worts obtained by traditional mashing procedure, but was still within the range needed for yeast growth. In African context, Eleusine coracana malt could be used for improve the conversion of sorghum starch into fermentable sugars during sorghum beer brewing.
  Francois Lyumugabe , Jeanne Primitive Uyisenga , Claude Bayingana and Emmanuel Bajyana Songa
  Background: African traditional beers are both considered as food and beverages for African people and hence preserving them using the natural additive is of utmost importance. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Rwandan plants Vernonia aemulans, Vernonia amygdalina, Lantana camara and Markhamia lutea leaves were tested against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Methodology: The antimicrobial activity was carried out by the disc diffusion method. The phytochemical screening of ethanolic extracts of these Rwandan plants was determined using standard method of analysis. Result: The results showed that the ethanol and aqueous extracts of V. aemulans, V. amygdalina, L. camara and M. lutea leaves have antibacterial activity against food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens with inhibitory zone diameters ranging between 3-26 mm. All extracts analyzed did not possess antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisaie, which plays major role in African beers fermentation. The Gram-negative bacteria tested were found to be resistant only against the extracts of M. lutea leaves. The extracts of V. aemulans, V. amygdalina and L. camara possess antibacterial activities both against the Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) bacteria with the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2-16 mg mL–1. These inhibitory properties had been attributed to the presence of tannins (9.2-99 mg g–1), flavonoids (62.4-87.4 mg g–1), saponins (39.8-65 mg g–1), phenolic compounds (22.6-42.8 mg g–1) and alkaloids (32-40.7 mg g–1) in these plants. Conclusion: The findings established that V. aemulans, V. amygdalina and L. camara leaves can be used as natural beer preservatives with considerable market opportunities in African brewing industry due to their strong antimicrobial activity imparting extended shelf-life with less harmful effects.
 
 
 
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