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Articles by Emmanuel I. Akubugwo
Total Records ( 3 ) for Emmanuel I. Akubugwo
  Emmanuel I. Ugwuja , Emmanuel I. Akubugwo , Udu A. Ibiam and Onyechi Obidoa
  Micronutrient deficiencies, especially during pregnancy have been identified as important public health problem especially in economically disadvantaged settings. To determine the effect of maternal deficiencies of copper and zinc on pregnancy outcomes in a population of pregnant Nigerians, 349 pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean; 27.04±2.75 years) recruited at gestational age of <25 week (mean; 21.8±3.14 wks) were evaluated for plasma copper and zinc using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The women were followed-up till delivery during which maternal morbidity and foetal outcomes were recorded. Both maternal sociodemographic and obstetric data were obtained by questionnaire. One hundred and sixty (45.8%) women were zinc deficient (mean = 2.65±1.16 μmol/l), 58.2% were deficient in copper (mean = 3.26±1.80 μmol/l), 23.8% were deficient in both copper and zinc while 18.6% were not deficient in either copper or zinc. There was comparative prevalence of illness in copper-deficient and copper-adequate mothers, except for hypertension which was significantly (p = 0.021) higher in the former. Significantly (p = 0.026) higher proportion of zinc adequate pregnant women suffered upper respiratory tract infections and malaria when compared with their zinc deficient counterparts. However, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in mothers who were zinc deficient. Both plasma copper and zinc status had no significant effect on foetal outcome. The reason for the lack of effect of copper and zinc deficiencies on foetal outcomes in the presence of adverse maternal outcomes remained unknown.
  Emmanuel I. Ugwuja , Emmanuel I. Akubugwo and Boniface N. Ejikeme
  To determine the effect of hyperglycaemia on plasma copper and zinc in pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus, data for 40 diabetic and 40 non-diabetic pregnant women, matched for age, gestational age, Body Mass Index (BMI), parity and socioeconomic status from a cohort of 349 pregnant women recruited at gestational age of <25 weeks for the assessment of impacts of trace elements on pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. In addition to plasma copper and zinc which were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck Scientific, Model AVG 210), plasma albumin, glucose, haemoglobin concentration and Total White Blood Cell Count (TWBC) were determined using standard laboratory methods. Although diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women had comparable (p>0.05) age, gestational age, BMI and plasma copper, the former had significantly (p<0.05) lower plasma zinc (16.49±4.74 vs. 25.31±7.07 μmol/l) with significantly higher plasma glucose concentration (13.19±1.81 vs. 6.23±1.12 mmol/l). The diabetic subjects also had significantly (p<0.05) higher plasma albumin and TWBC when compared to their control counterparts (3.41±0.85 vs. 2.92±0.79 g/dl and 5.72±1.75 vs. 5.10±1.33 x 109/L respectively), although these were within the reference ranges. Correlation analysis showed that plasma glucose was negatively correlated with plasma zinc concentration (r = -0.239; p = 0.051). It is therefore concluded that hyperglycaemia in pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus impacts negatively on plasma zinc status, but lacks effect on plasma copper. This has important health implications for diabetic pregnant women and their newborns.
  Emmanuel I. Ugwuja , Boniface N. Ejikeme , Nicholas C. Ugwu , Ndudim C. Obeka , Emmanuel I. Akubugwo and Onyechi Obidoa
  With the increasing speculations of the involvement of nutrition, particularly trace elements in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, a comparative study of plasma copper, iron and zinc levels was carried out between preeclamptic and non-eclamptic Nigerian women living in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. Data for 40 preeclamptic and 40 non-eclamptic women matched for age, gestational age, Body Mass Index (BMI), parity and socioeconomic status from a cohort of 349 pregnant women recruited at gestational age <25 weeks for the assessment of impacts of trace elements’ status on pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. In addition to trace elements which were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck Scientific, Model AVG 210), Total White Blood Cell Count (TWBC) and Haemoglobin Concentration (HbC) were determined using standard laboratory techniques. The preeclamptic and the non-eclamptic women had comparable TWBC and HbC with the former having significantly (p < 0.05) higher blood pressure. However, although, the preeclamptic women had lower plasma copper, iron and zinc levels than the non-eclamptic women, only copper was found to be statistically significant (6.02±7.23 vs. 10.23±9.84 μmol/l, p<0.05). It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant decrease in plasma copper. Further research is desired to elucidate the role of trace elements, especially copper in the pathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension.
 
 
 
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