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Articles by Eme Efiom Osim
Total Records ( 2 ) for Eme Efiom Osim
  Victor Udo Nna , Ubom Paul Akpan and Eme Efiom Osim
  Several undesired effects following chronic use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (particularly, sildenafil and tadalafil) and opioid (tramadol) have been reported. This study assessed the effect of chronic administration of sildenafil, tadalafil, tramadol and sildenafil+tramadol (as used in Nigeria today), on serum lipid profile (cardiovascular risk assessment), since alterations may not be easily discernable by their users. Fifty male albino wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10), thus; control (0.2 mL normal saline), sildenafil treated (10 mg kg–1), tadalafil treated (10 mg kg–1), tramadol treated (20 mg kg–1) and sildenafil+tramadol treated (10 and 20 mg kg–1, respectively) group. The drugs were administered every two days, per oral route, for eight weeks. All animals had access to food and water ad libitum. At the end of eight weeks, 5 animals were sacrificed from each group, leaving the remaining 5 per group for another 8 weeks without treatment (recovery phase). Blood was collected from each animal via cardiac puncture and serum lipid profile assessed. Serum total cholesterol was significantly (p<0.001) increased in tadalafil treated group, but significantly (p<0.001) reduced in tramadol and sildenafil+tramadol treated groups, compared with control. Serum LDL-c concentration was significantly increased in sildenafil (p<0.01) and tadalafil (p<0.001) treated groups, but significantly reduced in tramadol and sildenafil+tramadol treated groups, compared with control. Cardiac Risk Ratio (CRR) was significantly reduced in tramadol (p<0.001) and sildenafil+tramadol (p<0.01) treated groups, compared with sildenafil and tadalafil treated groups. The same trend was observed for atherogenic coefficient. Atherogenic index of plasma was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in sildenafil+tramadol treated group, compared with control and tadalafil treated groups. Following withdrawal of treatment, serum total cholesterol and LDL-c reduced significantly (p<0.001) in tadalafil recovery group, compared with its treated group, while serum lipid profile did not differ significantly between the treated and recovery group of rats administered sildenafil, tramadol and sildenafil+tramadol. Sildenafil and tadalafil exhibited hyperlipidaemic effects, while tramadol and sildenafil+tramadol exhibited hypolipidaemic effects, with poor reversibility.
  Elemi John Ani , Daniel Udofia Owu and Eme Efiom Osim
  Several studies have documented negative effects following consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil on various systems of the body. This study seeks to investigate the effects of long term consumption of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on markers of anaemia. Eighteen male 5 months old New Zealand rabbits weighing 750-1000 g were used for this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups (n = 6), namely; control, fresh palm oil-fed group (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil-fed group (TPO). Fresh palm oil diet was prepared by mixing 15 g of fresh palm oil with 85 g of feed while thermoxidised palm oil diet was prepared by mixing 15 g of thermoxidised palm oil with 85 g of feed. At the end of 6 months of feeding, the animals were fasted for 12 h, after which blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture, under chloroform anaesthesia. The blood samples were then used for the different analysis. Red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume for TPO (4.58±0.30 millions mm–3, 14.96±0.92 g dL–1, 33.3±1.92%) group was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared with control (5.45±0.15 million mm–3, 17.26±0.40 g dL–1, 38.88±1.3 %). Erythropoietin concentration was significantly lower (p<0.01) in TPO group (7.45±0.83 pg mL–1), compared with control (14.45±2.09 pg mL–1) and FPO (11.63 ±0.68 pg mL–1) groups, (p<0.05). Specific gravity of whole blood in the TPO fed group (1042±1.68) was significantly reduced (p<0.05), compared with control group (1052±1.67). On histology, the TPO fed group showed infiltration of the bone marrow with adipose tissue and reduction in the number of blood forming cells, while the liver in the TPO fed group showed extensive diffuse steatosis. This study has revealed the specific causative factors of anaemia following chronic consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil to be reduced serum erythropoietin, increased RBC hemolysis and damage to the bone marrow and kidneys. The class of anaemia has been identified in this study as normocytic and normochromic type.
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