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Articles by Elsayed Emara
Total Records ( 2 ) for Elsayed Emara
  U. Ali Rahoma and Elsayed Emara
  Problem statement: The small size fraction of aerosols, measured as PM10 and PM2.5, rather than the larger particles, is considered to be responsible for most of the health effects. Such particles have a relatively long residence time in the atmosphere and can therefore travel over long distances. Hence, a large portion of ambient concentrations of PM10 and in particular of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), can be attributed to long range trans boundary air pollution or to other remote sources. The estimates of exposure and of health effects are based on a number of uncertain assumptions and data sets, as described in previous article. Approach: In industrialized Middle East countries, the daily deposition of PM10 particles in the lungs is roughly 250 μg day-1, which represents a small dose in terms of traditional toxicology studies. Studies of PM10 have considered this total material but have not asked how much its chemical or physical characteristics contribute to its total toxicity. Results: This article focuses on the description of the present knowledge on PM10 concentration fields and predominant sources contributing to PM10 from long range transport of pollution. PM10 is a complex mixture of many known and unknown components; therefore, a short introduction on the composition of PM10 is given. The studies denote to the African dust from mean PM10 levels background levels are still 5-10 mg m3 higher in the Eastern Basin (EMB) when compared with those in the Western (WMB), mainly due to the higher anthropogenic and sea spray loads. Conclusion: As regards for the seasonal trends, these are largely driven by the occurrence of African dust events, resulting in a spring-early summer maximum over the EMB and a clear summer maximum in the WMB, although in this later region the recirculation of aged air masses play an important role. Furthermore, a marked seasonal trend is still evident when subtracting the African dust load. This is characterized by a high summer maximum (driven by low precipitation, high isolation) and a winter minimum (intense synoptic winds).
  Elsayed Emara and Ahmida Mohamed
  The study was designed to investigate the effects of combined antioxidants of vitamins C [L-ascorbic acid] and E [DL-α-tocopherol] on endothelial inflammation biomarkers and oxidative stress in liver and kidney in streptozotocin (an i.p. single 40 mg kg-1 dose) induced diabetic rats. Concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GHP-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were compared in 3 groups of 10 rats each: control nondiabetic rats [group I], untreated diabetic rats [group II] and diabetic rats treated with vitamins C (200 mg kg-1day-1 i.p.) and E (100 mg kg-1day-1 i.p.) for four weeks [group III]). The rats in groups II had significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of blood glucose, Total Cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM, VCAM and TBARS than rats in group I. In addition, the rats in group II had significantly (p<0.05) lower activities of GHP-Px, CAT and SOD than group I. The treatment with vitamins C and E significantly (p<0.05) lowered blood glucose, TC, TG, IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM and VCAM levels by 36, 48, 34, 23, 23, 22 and 14%, respectively. Also, lowered TBARS levels and increased the antioxidant enzyme levels near to control values. The results verify the presence of oxidative stress in diabetes and suggest beneficial effects of combination vitamins C and E in combating the oxidative stress in this disease.
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