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Articles by Elhadi M. Yahia
Total Records ( 3 ) for Elhadi M. Yahia
  Laura E. Gayosso-Garcia Sancho , Elhadi M. Yahia , Miguel Angel Martinez-Tellez and Gustavo Adolfo Gonzalez-Aguilar
  Problem statement: Nowadays, the worldwide increase in diseases has motivated consumers to increase the intake of fruits and vegetables, in response to various research reports indicating that fruits and vegetables can help prevent certain types of illnesses, due to their potentially high antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effect of the stage of ripeness of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) on the contents of bioactive components and their relation with antioxidant capacity. Approach: Whole papaya fruit were selected based on their visual ripeness, classifying them in four stages of ripeness (R1, R2, R3 and R4). Physiological and physical-chemical analysis performed included respiration, production of ethylene, firmness, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids, color (L*, a*, b*, °Hue, C); Polygalacturonase (PG) and Pectin Methyl Esterase (PME) activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (measured using DPPH, TEAC and ORAC assays). Results: The antioxidant capacity decreased approximately 27% in the RS4 when using DPPH and TEAC and increased when using ORAC (60.9%). PG activity increased from 8.14 (in RS1)-22.48 U gFW-1 (in RS4) as the stage of ripeness of papaya fruit increased. PME was affected in a similar manner with an activity of 0.5562 U gFW-1, at the end of the ripening storage. A high correlation between PG activity and softening of ripen papayas was observed. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was observed that papaya fruit experienced changes in firmness, which is correlated with activity from two of the main enzymes: PG and PME and with the increase of respiration and production of ethylene. The various stages of ripeness showed very good antioxidant capacity, being higher in RS1, which is correlated with the higher content of phenolic contents found in this ripening stage.
  Armando Carrillo-Lopez , Elhadi M. Yahia and Gabriela K. Ramirez-Padilla
  Problem statement: Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and major nutritional problems in developing countries, especially in young children. In many countries, a substantial proportion of dietary vitamin A is commonly derived from pro-vitamin A carotenoids obtained from colored fruits and orange or green vegetables. However, the bioavailability of retinol derived from carotenoids from these plant sources is not well known. Approach: The present study analyzed β-Carotene and Total Carotenoids (TC) composition of carrots (Daucus carota), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), Spinach (Spinacea oleracea), mangoes (Mangifera indica) and papayas (Carica papaya) and determined the bioconversion of their carotenoids to vitamin A by monitoring the levels of retinol accumulated in liver and plasma of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Products were freeze-dried, β-Carotene content analyzed by HPLC and TC by Spectrophotometry. Results: Carrots presented the highest content of β-carotene followed by parsley with 32.8 and 19.6 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Spinach had the highest content of TC followed by parsley with 60.7 and 56.7 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Four-week-old male Wistar rats received a standard diet as an adaptation period, a diet free of Carotenoids and Vitamin A (CVA-diet) as depletion period and finally a Fruit or Vegetable (FoV) based diet as repletion period. The highest β-carotene bioconversion was for mango and the lowest for parsley, whereas the highest TC bioconversion was for carrots and the lowest for parsley. There were no significant differences in plasma retinol between treatments. Conclusion/Recommendations: There was no relation between carotenoids content in FoV-based diet and retinol status in plasma. Furthermore, the employment of a general retinol conversion factor is regarded as not appropriate. So, it is recommended to consider specific conversion factors for groups of horticultural crops, for example, a factor for green leafy vegetables and other factor for fruits or roots.
  Jose de Jesus Ornelas-Paz , Elhadi M. Yahia and Alfonso A. Gardea-Bejar
  Problem statement: Bioconversion efficiency of β-Carotene (BC) in vitamin A is strongly influenced by food matrix. This efficiency has been determined mainly in typical BC sources like carrots. BC content in mango fruit is considerably high however; the bioconversion efficiency of BC from fresh mango in vitamin A has not been determined nor compared with those of typical BC sources. Approach: Vitamin A depleted rats were daily fed with portions of Ataulfo mango (alone or with soybean oil), carrots and BC dissolved in soybean oil, during a two weeks repletion period. These food portions provided an identical daily dose of BC (122.1-132.1 μg), which was considered as low. After repletion, the retinol accumulation in rat livers was determined. Results: BC was the major carotenoid in tested carrots and mangoes. BC content in these foods varied from 87.8 to 164.4 and from 17.4 to 1.2 mg Kg-1, respectively. Mango portions size delivered to the rats were higher than those of carrots but both provided the same amount of BC. Test foods portions were completely consumed by rats. Total intake of BC during the repletion period was identical in all experimental groups (1.8 mg) however, the accumulation of retinol in rat livers varied among experimental groups. The highest retinol accumulation was found in rats feeding the oily solution of BC. Co-consumption of mango and oil increase slightly the accumulation of retinol in rat livers, but statistical differences were not found. Rats fed with carrots accumulated 37% less retinol than those feeding mango without oil. Conclusion/Recommendations: Ataulfo mango was more effective than carrots in improving vitamin A status in deficient rats. Delivered BC doses were efficiently absorbed, converted to vitamin A and stored as retinol. Further studies are needed to test the potential of mango in improving the vitamin A status in humans routinely ingesting the fruit.
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