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Articles by Elfadil E. Babiker
Total Records ( 13 ) for Elfadil E. Babiker
  Mashier A. Sulieman , Mohamed M. ElTyeb , Mohamed A. Abbass , Elkhalil E.A. Ibrahim , Elfadil E. Babiker and Abdullahi H. ElTinay
  The study was conducted to evaluate changes during germination in chemical composition, phytic acid, phytase activity and total and extractable minerals of lentil cultivars. Three Sudanese lentil cultivars (Rubatab, Nadi and Selaim) were germinated for 3 and 6 days. The germinated seeds were dried and milled. Proximate composition, phytic acid content, phytase activity and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals were determined. During germination crude fat and fiber increased, whereas nitrogen free extract (NFE) and food energy decreased. Phytic acid content decreased significantly (p≤0.05) with an increase in germination time. Germination resulted in a decrease in total phytate phosphorous with correspondingly marked increase in non-phytate phosphorus. Total and extractible minerals (P, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cu and Zn) were positively correlated with duration of germination except Cu and Zn. Germination for 3 days increased phytase activity significantly (p≤0.05) for all cultivars. Phytase activity of Rubatab cultivar continued to increase up to 6 days of germination, however, for Nadi and Selaim cultivar it slightly decreased. In order to obtain lentil seeds with high phytase activity, low phytic acid and high mineral extractibility, germination process for more than 3 days is recommended.
  Fatima S , Ibrahim , Elfadil E. Babiker , Nabila E. Yousif and Abdullahi H. ELTinay
  Changes in pH, titrable acidity, protein, non-protein nitrogen, total soluble solids, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility were investigated during fermentation and/or supplementation of sorghum flour with whey protein. The pH of the fermenting material was decreased sharply with a concomitant increase in the titratable acidity. The total soluble solids increased with progressive fermentation time. The crude protein and. non-protein nitrogen were increased with fermentation time. The albumin plus globulin fraction was increased significantly (P = 0.05) during the first 8 h of fermentation. Other fractions contents were observed to fluctuate during fermentation time. Supplementation of the cultivar flour with whey protein greatly increased the protein content as well as albumin plus globulin fraction while other fractions were significantly decreased. The in vitro protein digestibility was significantly (P = 0.05) improved during fermentation time and even after supplementation. Sensory evaluation of local processing methods of sorghum products (Kisra, Asida and Nasha) before and after supplementation showed no difference between the supplemented samples and the control ones as judged by trained panelists.
  Amro B. Hassan , Gammaa A. Osman and Elfadil E. Babiker
  Two lupin cultivars namely Dongola and Golo were used to investigate the effect of domestic processing methods on antinutritional factors and protein and minerals availability. Processing methods were observed to reduce both tannin and phytic acid contents. However, phytic acid was greatly reduced when the seeds were soaked in distilled water compared to other processing methods. On the other hand, soaking of seeds followed by cooking or dehulling greatly reduced tannin content. Most domestic processing methods of lupin seeds were observed to improve protein digestibility and mineral availability for both cultivars. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling of Golo cultivar was observed to increase protein digestibility to 92%, compared to the same treatment applied to Dongola cultivar (83.9%). Soaking of the seeds followed by cooking and dehulling of Dongola cultivar significantly (P = 0.05) increased iron availability to 78.2% compared to the same treatment applied to Golo cultivar (31.9%). Soaking of whole seeds significantly (P = 0.05) increased Ca and Co availability of cultivar Golo to 74.6% and 79.6%, compared to the same treatment applied to Dongola cultivar by 50% and 32.2%, respectively.
  Nuha M. Osman , Amro. B. Hassan , Mohamed Ahmed I. Ali and Elfadil E. Babiker
  The effect of autoclaving on the functional properties of defatted chickpea flour as a function of NaCl concentration (M) was investigated. The protein solubility of both treated and untreated flour showed minimum solubility at 0.2 M and maximum solubility at 0.4 M. Higher emulsion capacity was observed at 0.6 M and then decreased. Maximum foaming capacity of the flour was obtained at 0.2 M and thereafter started to decrease. Foam stability of the flour was minimum at 0.2M and increased with increase in concentration of NaCl. The Emulsion Capacity (EC) of the flour was higher at 0.6M of NaCl. On either side of this concentration, EC gradually decreased. The emulsifying activity decreased slightly when NaCl was added. For both samples the emulsion stability was significantly decreased by addition of NaCl. Autoclaving had no significant effect on the functional properties of untreated chickpea flour.
  Samia M. Abdelrahman , Hagir B. ELmaki , Wisal H. Idris , Elfadil E. Babiker and Abdullahi H. EL Tinay
  In this study four pearl millet cultivars Ashana, Dahabaya, Dembi, GB-87-35, were investigated. Results showed that pearl millet contained 1.6-2.3% ash and 11.4-13.0% protein. Pearl millet cultivars were very rich in major mineral specially P. Trace minerals were also high for all cultivars specially Fe content. HC1-extractability of minerals (as an index of their bioavailability) varied between the cultivars and type of mineral as well as antnutritional factors contents. Phytic acid content ranged from 969.3 to 1101.0 mg/100 g and polyphenol ranged from 306.7 to 669.4 mg/100 g. Cooking was found to reduce antinutritional factors contents and caused a slight increase in mineral content while bioavailability was significantly (p#0.01) improved for all minerals investigated. Germination for 2, 4 and 6-days significantly (p#0.01) decreased major and trace (except Cu and Co) minerals contents. Bioavailability of all minerals was significantly (p#0.01) improved throughout the germination time.
  Wisal H. Idris , Samia M. AbdelRahman , Hagir B. ELMaki , Elfadil E. Babiker and Abdullahi H. EL Tinay
  Sorghum (Sorghum biocolor) also known as ‘Dura’ in Sudan is a source of carbohydrate, protein and mineral that is comparable to other common cereal grains. However, antinutrients like phytate and tannins reduce the nutrient bioavailability, which can be improved by suitable processing methods such as germination, fermentation and cooking. In our study, sorghum cultivars (Wad Ahmed and Tabat) were germinated for different periods (24, 48 and 96 h), fermented for different period of time up to 14 h (2 h interval) and then cooked. Major changes in phytate occurred during germination (96 h) and in tannin occurred after the germinated or fermented flour was cooked. The reduction in phytate content accompanied by increase in HCl-extractable minerals of more than 100%. The study revealed that germination or fermentation followed by cooking is a potential process for decreasing the antinutrient levels and enhancing availability of minerals.
  Samia M. A/Rahaman , Hagir B. ElMaki , I. Wisal Hassan , Elfadil E. Babiker and Abdullahi H. El Tinay
  The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and mineral content and availability of various cereals and legumes cultivars were studied. Legumes include faba bean and white bean while cereals includes millet and sorghum. Results showed that, on average, apart from protein and carbohydrate, the proximate composition of all legumes and cereals were slightly differed. The protein content of faba bean cultivars was significantly higher (p # 0.05) than those of white bean and cereals. Sorghum cultivars had significantly higher values of carbohydrate (p # 0.05) than millet and legumes cultivars. Antinutritional factors varied between cultivars and even within cereals and legumes. Phytate content varied from 233 to 991.11 mg/100g and phytate/phosphorus percent varied from 82 to 225% while polyphenols varied from 198.43 to 676.21 mg/100g. Minerals content and availability differed between the cultivars. Ca content and availability were higher in legumes compared to cereals while phosphorus content and availability were higher in cereals. White bean and millet had higher Fe content compared to other cultivars with higher availability recorded in millet. Among trace minerals, Co had a higher availability (87%) in millet cultivars compared to other ones.
  Samia M., AbdelRahaman , Elfadil E. Babiker and Abdullahi H. El Tinay
  This study reports the effect of fermentation of pearl millet cultivars on the antinutritional factors and minerals content and availability The flour of two pearl millet cultivars (Ashana and Dembi) was fermented for 14 h. The fermented flour was dried and milled. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals of the fermented flours were determined at intervals of 2 h during fermentation. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents decreased significantly (p# 0.01) with increase in fermentation time with concomitant decrease in pH and increase in minerals content and extractability. When the flour was fermented for 14 h, Ashana had higher extractable Na and P, whereas Fe and Mn recorded high level in Dembi and Ashana, respectively. It was observed that cooking of the flour fermented for 14 h further increased minerals content and extractability for both cultivars. There was a good correlation between antinutritional factors reduction and increase in extractable minerals with increase in fermentation time.
  Samia M. Abdel Rahaman , Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed , Elfadil E. Babiker and Salah A. Mahgoub
  The composition, structure of proteins and some physicochemical properties of meals prepared from three sunflower cultivars (G100, 6431 and PAC2594) were studied. The cultivars meals were very rich in protein, ash, fiber and carbohydrates. The protein of the cultivars had five fractions when detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. However, PAC 2594 cultivars had more two additional fractions. The meals protein had maximum fluorescence emission spectra at 336, 334 and 334 nm for the cultivars G100, 6431 and PAC 2594, respectively. G100 cultivar had ? maxima at 292 and 326nm and that of 6431 were 294 and 328nm while for PAC2594 were 296 and 330 nm. The meals were least soluble at pH 4 (isoelectric region) and on either side of this pH, the solubility started to increase especially towards the alkaline region. The foaming capacity was lower at pH 4 and increased gradually on either side of this pH. However, addition of salt had no adverse effect on the foaming capacity of the meals protein. The foam of the protein was stable at the alkaline region. The meal of the cultivars had water absorption capacity of 211.0 gm/100gm, water retention ranged from 731.9 to 733.3 gm/100gm, fat absorption capacity ranged from 274.9 to 300 gm/100gm and bulk density ranged from 0.35 to 0.44 gm mL 1.
  Khalid A. Hassan , Amro B. Hassan , Mohamed M. Eltayeb Gammaa , A. Osman , Nafisa M. ElHassan and Elfadil E. Babiker
  The functional properties of defatted boiled and fried locust flour as a function of NaCl concentration were investigated. The protein solubility, emulsifying activity, emulsifying capacity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity and foam stability, were determined. The results obtained for boiled locust indicated that the protein solubility and foam stability were slightly increased, while the emulsifying capacity, emulsifying activity and emulsion stability were slightly decreased as NaCl concentration was increased. However, no consistent change was observed in foaming capacity. For fried locust, the protein solubility, emulsifying activity, foaming capacity anf foam stability were increased with NaCl concentration while the emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability were decreased with NaCl concentration. Generally it was observed that addition of NaCl to locust flour improved its functionality.
  Wisal H. Idris , Amro B. Hassan , Elfadil E. Babiker and Abdullahi H. El Tinay
  Sorghum grains of cultivars Wad Ahmed and Tabat were germinated for 1, 2 and 4 days to obtain 1-, 2- and 4- day-old malts. About 1% of sorghum malt was added to sorghum flour. The mixtures were incubated at 30oC with shaking for 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Phytic acid and tannin contents and minerals extractability (as an index for minerals bioavaliability) were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that phytate and tannin contents were significantly (P = 0.05) reduced when sorghum flour was pretreated with malt. When a mixture containing 4-days-old malt was incubated for 120 min significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phytate and tannin contents by 39.9% and 26.7%, respectively for Wad Ahmed cultivar while for Tabat cultivar they were reduced by 36.6% and 23.8%, respectively. HCl extractability of both major and trace minerals was also significantly (P = 0.05) improved as a result of malt pretreatment especially when sorghum flour was mixed with 4-days malt and incubated for 120 min.
  Amro B. Hassan , Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed , Nuha M. Osman , Mohamed M. Eltayeb , Gammaa A. Osman and Elfadil E. Babiker
  Two pearl millet cultivars namely Gadarif and Gazeera were used in this study. The effect of soaking, debranning, dry heating and germination of the grains before and after fermentation on protein content and digestibility was investigated. The effect of processing treatments on the protein content was fluctuated and varied between the cultivars. For both cultivars germination of the grains increased the protein content and digestibility (except course ground grains). For both cultivars fermentation of the germinated and course ground grains increased the protein content while fermentation of other treated grains fluctuated between the cultivars. The protein digestibility of the treated grains after fermentation was greatly improved. For both cultivars fermentation of the germinated grains gave higher protein digestibility (> 90%) compared to all other treatments.
  Majed B. Ahmed , Rashed A. Hamid , Mohamed E. Ali , Amro B. Hassan and Elfadil E. Babiker
  The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantly increase protein content to 67.8%. Germination of seeds increased tannin and phytic acid content of the seeds. Polyphenols were fluctuating during processing. Albumin fraction of the seeds was decreased; prolamin and globulin were fluctuated during processing while glutelin was greatly increased.
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