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Articles by Ehsan Ramezani-Fard
Total Records ( 6 ) for Ehsan Ramezani-Fard
  Ehsan Ramezani-Fard and Mohd Salleh Kamarudin
  For many years, fish oil has been used as the major source of lipid in aquafeed production. However, the replacement of this marine origin ingredient with a sustainable resource such as vegetable oils is critically important. On the other hand, most of the vegetable oils are high in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids while a diet rich in these fatty acids can increase liver lipid deposition in some fish. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial or total replacement of fish oil with different vegetable oil sources (sunflower and palm) on the histological alterations in the liver and intestine of juvenile Malaysian mahseer, T. tambroides. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated in order to either completely or partially (50%) substitute fish oil with sunflower oil or palm oil. A diet without substitution was also used as a control. The effects of these diets on the histological alterations of liver and intestine of fish after a nine week feeding period were investigated. The results showed few inflammatory cells and lipid vacuoles in the liver of fish fed all the vegetable oil diets indicating minor hepatic steatosis. Lipid vacuoles were also observed in the intestinal wall of fish fed all the vegetable oil diets.
  Ehsan Ramezani-Fard , Mohd Salleh Kamarudin and Sharr Azni Harmin
  Production of large amounts of fish eggs with high quality is one of the major goals in aquaculture industry. All reproductive processes in fish are regulated by endocrine system. Numerous studies have been carried out in recent years in order to develop or improve egg production protocols. This study provides a summary of some recent advances regarding fish oocyte differentiation, maturation and ovulation stages. The oocyte growth stages including first and second growth stages, veitellogenesis and final growth stage and maturation are briefly explained. Recent advances on the hormonal systems which control the reproductive process and oocyte development are also highlighted.
  Jun Chin Teh , Mohd Salleh Kamarudin , Abdullah Abd-Rahim , Che Roos Saad and Ehsan Ramezani-Fard
  Providing a suitable feeding delivery method is very important in the studies of the feeding behavior of medicinal leeches. In this study, several materials and membranes were tested for their suitability as blood carrier for the feeding of Asian buffalo leech Hirudinaria manillensis. In the first experiment, four different materials (sheep intestine skin, cotton wool, cellulose sausage casing and rubber sacs) were prepared and filled or soaked with pre-warmed cattle blood. The food was offered to leeches stocked in 10 L aquaria at 10 leeches per aquarium. All treatments were triplicated. The results showed that cotton wool and sheep intestine skin had severe blood leakage while cellulose sausage casing failed to allow leech feeding. Leeches successfully imbibed the blood with no visible leakage through the rubber sacs. In the second experiment, different solutions (150 mM sodium chloride, distilled water and 6 mg L-1 heparinized cattle blood) were prepared into rubber sacs. Similar feeding protocols as in the first experiment were followed. Percentages of leech that approached the sacs and the average volume consumed per individual were estimated. A little or no feeding response was observed for the sacs filled with saline and distilled water. This indicated H. manillensis were able to detect the blood contained in the rubber sacs and successfully imbibed the blood. Therefore, the rubber sac was found to be suitable as the blood carrier for the feeding of buffalo leeches.
  Jun Chin Teh , Mohd. Salleh Kamarudin , Abdullah Abd-Rahim , Che Roos Saad and Ehsan Ramezani-Fard
  The growth and survival of leeches are highly affected by environmental changes particularly the availability of food. In this study, Asian buffalo leeches Hirudinaria manillensis were stocked in 10 L aquaria at 10 leeches per aquarium and randomly assigned to five different feeding frequencies (once every 3, 6, 12 and 24 days) and no feeding. The leeches were fed with prewarmed cattle blood in rubber sacs. The results showed that leech fed every 3 days had the highest average growth both by day 30 (82.8%) and day 60 (115.8%). This followed by those fed every 6, 12 and 24 days. By day 60, no significant differences in growth were found among the feeding leeches except those fed at every 24 days which have a significantly much lower growth. Starved leeches (FS) had a negative growth throughout the experiment. The weight lost in starved leeches was due to the depletion of reserved energy in the body. The protein content of all leeches was extremely high (about 80%) and no significant differences in the body composition of among treatments were found. The study also showed that leech survival was not significantly affected by feeding frequency. A feeding interval of 6-12 days was recommended for the commercial culture of leech H. manillensis.
  Hadi Zokaei Far , Che Roos B. Saad , Hassan Mohd Daud , Mohd Salleh Kamarudin and Ehsan Ramezani-Fard
  The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogen has led aquaculture attentions to the use of probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics. This study was conducted to isolate bacterial micro flora from digestive tract of healthy juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei based on antagonistic activity against shrimp pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In this study, potential probiotic strains were isolated using replica plating method to screen the bacteria with antagonism properties. Six isolates were identified as Pseudomonas sp. using conventional biochemical tests and Biolog GN microplates. In addition three Vibrio species including V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio cholerae were isolated from moribund shrimp and used as pathogen in this study. The pathogenicity of three Vibrio species was tested on shrimp L. vannamei by injecting 0.1 mL of 107 CFU mL-1 of each pathogen into the third abdominal segment. Among three Vibrio species only V. parahaemolyticus found to be highly virulent to shrimp with 43% cumulated mortality after 10 days. Subsequently, all Pseudomonas sp. isolates were tested for antibacterial activity against three Vibrio species using cross streak assay. Strong antibacterial activity was recorded for Pseudomonas sp. isolates number 5, 7, 15 and 30 against three pathogens. In addition a reasonable antibacterial activity was observed for isolates number 9 and 12. On the basis of great antibacterial activity of Pseudomonas sp. isolates these species may be considered for future challenge experiments in shrimp as a very promising alternative to the use of antibiotics.
  Saufinas Ismail , Mohd Salleh Kamarudin and Ehsan Ramezani-Fard
  Mahseer is one of the most expensive freshwater fish in Malaysia and has a good potential for freshwater aquaculture industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of Poultry Offal Meal (POM) as Fish Meal (FM) replacement in the diet of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides). The POM:FM ratios tested were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0. One hundred and fifty mahseer fingerlings (3.0±0.05 g) were equally and randomly stocked into 15 65 L aquaria. The diets were randomly assigned to the aquaria in triplicates groups. The feeding trial was conducted for 96 days. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed among the survival rate of fish while it was above 90% in all the treatments. Weight gain and specific growth rate significantly increased when 50-100% of dietary fishmeal was substituted with POM. Whole body composition of Malaysian mahseer was not significantly influenced by the experimental diets. This study showed that fishmeal in the diet of mahseer can be replaced by POM up to 100% ratio without any adverse effect on survival, growth performance and body composition.
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