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Articles by Ehsan Oskoueian
Total Records ( 2 ) for Ehsan Oskoueian
  Ehsan Oskoueian , Norhani Abdullah , Wan Zuhainis Saad , Abdul Rahman Omar and Yin Wan Ho
  Phorbol Esters (PEs) from Jatropha curcas seeds are known to have toxicity effects on various animal tissues but little is known about their effects on microorganisms residing in the gut systems of animals when the compounds are consumed. Hence, in the present study, the effects of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal on rumen microbial activities were determined. The rumen microbial fermentation, enzyme activity, microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial population and the morphology of rumen microbes were examined in vitro in the presence of PEs at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6% with 200 mg of Panicum maximum as substrate. The results showed that PEs at 1.5 and 3% did not affect the rumen microbial fermentation activities including, dry matter digestibility, in vitro gas production at 24 h, total VFA, acetic: propionic ratio and cellulolytic enzyme activity (carboxymethylcellulase, filter paperase). However, microbial activities were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed at 4.5 and 6% PEs. On the other hand, microbial protein synthesis and microbial population (general bacteria, fungi, protozoa, methanogens, archaea and major cellulolytic bacteria) values were significantly (p<0.05) reduced at all levels of PEs. Morphological examination using scanning electron microscopy revealed the aggregation and membrane disruption of the rumen microbes. The results of this study showed that, although PEs affected the rumen microbial activities in a dose-dependent manner with no significant adverse effects up to 3% but the microbial population was significantly suppressed (p<0.05) at all levels of PEs.
  Ehsan Oskoueian , Norhani Abdullah , Wan Zuhainis Saad , Abdul Rahman Omar , Mansor Bin Puteh and Yin Wan Ho
  Jatropha curcas Linn. seed upon oil extraction resulted in a protein enriched byproduct called kernel meal. The presence of anti-nutritional metabolites in high levels renders the meal unsuitable as an animal feed. This research was carried out to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the level of anti-nutritional metabolites present in the kernel meal. The effects of treated kernel meal on rumen microbial fermentation were evaluated in vitro. Proximate analysis of kernel meal obtained from J. curcas grown in Malaysia showed 61.8% crude protein, 9.7% NDF and 4.8% ADF. The anti-nutritional metabolites analyses showed high levels of total phenolic (3.9 mg g-1 DM), total saponin (1.9 g 100 g-1 DM), phytic acid (9.1%), trypsin inhibitors (34.2 mg g-1 DM), lectin activity (102.7 mg mL-1) and phorbolesters (3.0 mg g-1 DM). Combination of hydrothermal treatment, alkali and oxidizing agents alleviated the levels of anti-nutritional metabolites. Phenolic compounds, saponin and phorbolesters levels declined significantly (p<0.05) while the level of phytic acid did not decrease. Trypsin inhibitors and lectin activity were fully inactivated. The level of phorbolesters decreased by 76.7% in treatment with heat, 3% (w/w) NaOH and 10% (v/w) NaOCl. In vitro fermentation by rumen microbes showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in fermentation parameters when chemically treated kernel meal was used as substrates while physically treated kernel meal did not affect the fermentation parameters significantly.
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