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Articles by Edhi Martono
Total Records ( 3 ) for Edhi Martono
  Andriarti Kusumawardani , Edhi Martono , Yohanes Andi Trisyono and Nugroho Susetyo Putra
  Background and Objective: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an ecological approach of pest control method in agricultural crop management. One way to disseminate information on IPM is through farmer field schools activities. The purpose of this research was to find out the knowledge and attitudes of farmers who had participated in the Integrated Pest Management-Farmer Field Schools (IPM-FFS) towards the use of pesticides following the IPM principles. Materials and Methods: This research employed a survey method with 55 farmers of IPM-FFS alumni and 40 farmers of non-IPM-FFS as the respondents. A descriptive analysis was carried out to describe farmers' knowledge and attitudes towards the use of pesticides. The Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to compare the level of knowledge and attitudes between the IPM-FFS farmers and the non-IPM-FFS farmers towards the use of pesticides following the IPM principles. Results: The results showed that the IPM-FFS farmers in Banyumas indicated sufficient understanding of the use of pesticides as suggested by the IPM principles and indicated some agreement to the use pesticides following the IPM principles. Conclusion: Farmers' knowledge and attitudes towards the use of pesticides in accordance with the principles of IPM can be increased more effectively through the IPM-FFS approach.
  Dwi Sutiningsih , Mustofa , Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto and Edhi Martono
  Background and Objective: Bruceine A is a quassinoid compound isolated from the seeds of Makassar fruit (Brucea javanica L. Merr.) that has a biolarvicidal effect toward Aedes aegypti larvae with a lethal concentration fifty (LC50) and ninety (LC90) of 0.408 and 4.923 ppm, respectively. This study aimed to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of bruceine A on the growth and development of A. aegypti larvae at sublethal concentrations. Materials and Methods: The effect of bruceine A on A. aegypti larvae growth and development was tested using bioassays. Daily counts of the number of larvae that survived or died were taken until all the experimental larvae became either pupae or adults. Dead larvae were assessed for morphological and histological changes. The statistical analysis of growth and development inhibition was performed by using Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann Whitney. The data from observation on morphological and histological changes were descriptively analyzed. Results: Inhibitory effects of bruceine A on the growth and development of A. aegypti larvae were seen at concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm. The morphological changes seen in larvae included damage to the gastrointestinal tract manifested as black spots, folded breathing tubes and detached cuticle and setae as well as smaller body sizes compared to the control group. Histological examination of the larvae indicated diffuse necrosis in the gastrointestinal epithelium accompanied by epithelial cell shrinkage, whereas the core was not visible. Conclusion: It is concluded that bruceine A inhibits growth and development of A. aegypti larvae, as shown by cuticle damage and necrosis of gastrointestinal and respiratory epithelial cells.
  Dwi Sutiningsih , Mustofa , Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto and Edhi Martono
  Background and Objectives: Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is a mosquito species that plays an important role as a vector of diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (L.) resistance against temephos and pyrethroid has been widely reported in several countries including Indonesia. This study aimed to examine the neurotoxic mechanism of bruceine A biolarvicide and to determine the inhibitory activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and gene Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC) on A. aegypti (L.) larvae. Materials and Methods: Bruceine A was obtained by extraction and isolation of Makassar fruit’s seeds. Test of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was based on Ellman method. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel gene inhibitor was tested using PCR. The statistical analysis of inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase was performed by using Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann Whitney. The data from observation on behavior response and VGSC gene were descriptively analyzed. Results: Bruceine A could inhibit the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase as much as 45.083±0.003%, with symptoms of a neurotoxic that is excitation, convulsions, tremors and paralysis. The result of fragment amplification of VGSC gene and electrophoresis on agarose gel 2% generated in a specific band with the size of the fragment bands of 336 bp on samples of larvae that were still sensitive to bruceine A and cypermethrin. Conclusion: Bruceine A isolated from the seeds of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. has been demonstrated as biolarvicide against larvae of A. aegypti (L.), through its neurotoxic properties. The mechanism of neurotoxicity is mediated through inhibition of enzyme acetylcholinesterase and VGSC gene.
 
 
 
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