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Articles by E.V. Ikpeme
Total Records ( 19 ) for E.V. Ikpeme
  E.V. Ikpeme , U.B. Ekaluo , Y.B. Ibiang , O.U. Udensi and P.B. Ekpo
  This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic stem bark extract of Nauclea latifolia, Cylicodiscus gabunensis and Araliopsis souyauxii; three plants used locally as anti-malarials, on haematology and serum enzyme levels in albino rats. Employing a 3x3 factorial arrangement, thirty six male albino rats were randomly assigned into nine groups of four rats each, treated daily with ethanol extract corresponding to 0, 125 and 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the three plants. Treatment was administered orally for two months, after which the animals were sacrificed for estimation of study parameters. All data were subjected to analysis of variance, with conclusions drawn at 5% probability level. Results obtained showed that while N. latifolia and A. souyauxii gave no evidence of potential haemo-toxicity, C. gabunensis at 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. significantly reduced haemoglobin content and packed cell volume of the animals. Although alanine transaminase revealed no significant differences, all plants induced significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase levels at both 125 and 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. Aspartate transaminase was also significantly elevated in all plant groups at 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. Overall, the potential toxic effect of these anti-malarial herbs was observed to be more on serum enzyme levels, than on haematology. In quest for standardized anti-malarial preparations from these herbs, we recommend a dose no more than 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. for N. latifolia and A. souyauxii and 125 mg kg-1 b.wt. for C. gabunensis.
  E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , U.B. Ekaluo , M.E. Kooffreh , C.M. Okolo , P.B. Ekpo and N.C. Ogbonna
  The utilization of molecular markers-assisted genetic diversity study is critical and imperative for a more robust selection and breeding programmes in aquaculture. Twenty C. gariepinus species were randomly selected, 5 each from four Rivers/locations-Okurikan (OKU), Lemna (LMN), UNICAL Fish Farm (UFF) and MCC cultured fish site, in Cross River State, Nigeria for genetic diversity study using RAPD technique. Genomic DNA extraction and purification from caudal fin tissue sample was performed using ZR Genomic DNA tissue extraction Kit, primed using OPA09, OPA11 and OPA13 RAPD primers and amplified using PCR. The amplified fragments were ran on gel electrophoresis and visualized under ethidium bromide dye. Thirty four bands were generated by the three RAPD primers from the four C. gariepinus populations of which 28 were polymorphic, accounting for 82.35%. Polymorphism revealed by each fish population ranged from 92.86-100% while, gene diversity estimates ranged from 0.246±0.16-0.385±0.09. Intra-population similarity index ranged from 42.49-78.4% while, the inter-population similarity index across all population combinations ranged from 52.32-71.69%. These result also revealed that as genetic distances increases, genetic identities narrows between the wild and the cultured species. UPGMA dendrogram generated two major clusters with C. gariepinus species from OKU, UFF and MCC in cluster-1 and C. gariepinus species from LMN in cluster-2. Implicitly though, our results suggest that there were several genetic diversity in the populations studied, especially between the cultured and the wild, which could encourage selection of C. gariepinus from OKU and LMN populations for the purpose of breeding and improvement.
  E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , M.C. Okolo , F.U. Ogban , N.G. Ufford , E.U. Odo and B.O. Asuquo
  Genetic diversity in germplasm is cardinal for breeders as it provides potential genotype (s) for breeding and improvement. Sixty C. gariepinus samples were obtained from the wild and cultured populations in Cross River, Nigeria. Twenty one morphometric traits were taken from each fish sample and were later prepared for proximate and mineral composition analyses. Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) version 20.0 was used for data analyses. Results showed that the standard length, pre-dorsal and pre-anal distances, pre-pectoral distance, head length, head width, eye diameter, distance between occipital process and caudal fin of C. garipeinus from the wild populations were significantly higher than those from the cultured populations. Calcium and magnesium contents were high in C. garipeinus from the wild populations while protein content was higher in the cultured C. garipeinus. The PC1 and PC2 contributed 44.89 and 14.00% to the total variability of 84.17%. From PC1, standard length (0.924), pre-dorsal distance (0.856), pre-anal distance (0.941), dorsal fin length (0.890), anal fin length (0.839), head length (0.946), head width (0.863), inter-orbital distance (0.820) and eye diameter (0.896) contributed significantly to the total variability observed in C. gariepinus populations. Cluster analysis revealed two major clusters for both morphometric and proximate composition, which were largely population-dependent. These suggest that C. gariepinus breeders and farmers should source C. gariepinus species from the wild in order to genetically enrich the gene pool. Additionally, head region-based morphometric traits might be more informative in distinguishing wild and cultured populations of C. gariepinus.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , S.E. Etta and P.B. Ekpo
  Tigernut is consumed by humans and livestock. It also has many medicinal uses. There is growing evidence of decline in human sperm count and quality. Hence, this study seeks to evaluate the effect of Aqueous Extract of Tigernut (AET) on testosterone level, weight of epididymes and testes, sperm count, semen pH, sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm head abnormalities in male rats as a model. The rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. The rats were treated with AET at 0.0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g kg–1 b.wt. day–1, respectively for nine weeks. After which, the rats were sacrificed and assessed for the parameters. The AET had a dose-dependent effect on all the parameters. In conclusion, AET has the capability of increasing the weights of the testes and epididymes, sperm count, sperm quality and testosterone level. Hence, AET could be used as a possible fertility booster and to attenuate sperm toxicity.
  E.V. Ikpeme , U.B. Ekaluo , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette and M. Pius
  This study was aimed at assessing the reproductive activities of male albino rats treated with crude leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis. The total of thirty sexually matured male albino rats of about eleven weeks, weighing between 120-180 g were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) with 6 rats in each group. Rats in group A served as the control and were fed with normal commercial feed only; groups B, C, D and E received 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg kg-1 Body Weight (BW) of the test substance, respectively. The results of the phytochemistry showed high content of phytates (49.27%) and other bioactive compounds in the leaf extracts. Results on the sperm parameters revealed significant reduction (p<0.05) in the sperm count, viability and motility. Sperm head abnormalities were also significant in the different groups with the highest recorded at 600 mg kg-1 BW (8.75%). Although, there were no significant difference in the epididymides weight of rats in the different groups, the testes weight was significantly reduced (p<0.05). From the present results, there is a dire need to always apply caution on the use of B. spectabilis in combating diseases considering the possible adverse effects that it could pose on spermatogenic pathways.
  O. Udensi , E.J. Umana , E.A. Edu and E.V. Ikpeme
  This study investigated the nutritive value of locally grown pulses’ landraces (White “Fiofio”, Brown “Fiofio”, [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] “Olaudi” “Akidi” and IT88D-867-11) [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp] as indices for conservation and improvement. Proximate, anti-nutritional and mineral elements were evaluated. Data analyses were done using analysis of variance. Results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the proximate compositions of the screened pulses, except in the ash content which shows no significance among the pulses (p>0.05). The moisture content did not differ among the brown and white “Fiofio”, “Olaudi” and IT88D-867-11 but differed significantly from “Akidi”. Results obtained also revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the protein contents of brown “Fiofio”, “Akidi” and IT88D-867-11 but differed slightly from white “Fiofio” and “Olaudi”. Additionally, “Olaudi” had the highest protein content in its seeds. There was no significant difference in the carbohydrate content among brown “Fiofio”, “Olaudi” and “Akidi” but differed from white “Fiofio” and IT88D-867-11. Present results on the anti-nutritive contents also showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the five sampled pulses. “Akidi” had the highest phytic acid level which was followed by IT88D-867-11. There was no significant difference in the hydrocyanide content of “Akidi”, “Olaudi” and IT 888D-867-11. This component was highest in brown “Fiofio” and least in white “Fiofio”. The oxalate content was highest in “Akidi”. Comparing other pulses with IT88D-867-11, the landraces contained higher mineral elements. For the vitamins, IT88D-867-11 contained the highest level of Vitamin A but had the least Vitamin C. Coupled with their high adaptability in adverse climatic conditions, it is explicitly obvious that these landraces should be selected for conservation and improvement.
  O. Udensi , E.V. Ikpeme , E.A. Edu and D.E. Ekpe
  Establishing the extent of relationship, identifying the cause and measuring the relative importance of such associations to yield is very crucial for varietal selection, breeding and subsequent improvement of crops, especially cowpea landraces. This research x-rays correlation coefficients and path coefficients of yield and yield-influencing traits in cowpea landraces. Seeds of four varieties of locally grown cowpea were sown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in ten replications. The field study was carried out at the University of Calabar Experimental Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria, during the 2010-2011 growing season. Correlation coefficients and path coefficients were computed on yield and yield-contributing traits. Results obtained revealed that significant relationships between yield and yield-contributing traits existed which could be indices for selection. Genotypic correlations coefficients were high and more significant than the phenotypic and environmental correlation coefficients. Path coefficient analysis shows that number of pod per plant had the highest direct effects to cowpea yield (0.588). This was followed by number of flowers (0.454), number of seeds per pod (0.366), leaf area at 5 weeks (0.366) and pod length and 100 seed weight (0.316), respectively. Other morphological traits had negative direct effects on seed yield such as vein length at 10 weeks (-0.627), number of leaves at 5 weeks (-0.215), number of leaves at 10 weeks (-0.033), leaf area at 10 weeks -1.124, days to 50% flowering (-0.083) and days to 50% maturity (-0.066). Succinctly, it therefore implies that number of pods per plant, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant, pod length and number of seeds per pod are good selection indices for a high yielding variety of cowpea, especially the landraces. This then can be exploited in hybridization programmes involving cowpea.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , Y.B. Ibiang and O.S. Amaechina
  The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , Y.B. Ibiang and F.O. Omordia
  Extracts of Annona spp. have been used for several medicinal purposes such as the management of diabetes and its complications, also as antioxidant and antimutagenic agents. There have been attempts to attenuate toxic effects using medicinal plants. Hence, the mitigating effect of soursop (A. muricata) fruit extract on sperm toxicity induced by caffeine was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal sperm count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rats as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with treatments of caffeine and Soursop Fruit Extract (SFE) for 65 days. In conclusion, SFE mitigated the caffeine-induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, sperm count and sperm head abnormality in the mammalian model.
  U.B. Ekaluo , Y.B. Ibiang , E.V. Ikpeme and P.B. Ekpo
  This study was designed to evaluate the anti-mutagenic potential of Myristica fragans (Nutmeg) in male rats. Twenty male wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups. The treatment groups were administered doses corresponding to 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg kg-1 b.wt. of nutmeg aqueous extract for a period of eight weeks. Data were collected on bone marrow micronucleus index, sperm head abnormality and mutation index. Analysis of variance revealed significant (p<0.05) reductions in sperm head abnormality in the nutmeg treated animals, as compared with the control, in a dose dependent manner. The control had the highest value for sperm head abnormality (6.18±0.55), while 600 mg kg-1 b.wt. group had the lowest value (3.80±0.09). Micronucleus index values in the 600 mg kg-1 b.wt. group (1.40±0.25) was significantly reduced, as compared with the control (3.60±0.51). It was also observed that the mutation indices decreased in a dose dependent manner, from 0.00 in the 0 mg kg-1 b.wt. group to -0.384 in the 600 mg kg-1 b.wt. group. Nutmeg extract showed anti-mutagenic properties, which means the plant contains phyto-antimutagens that could be exploited further in drug development, or as standardized phyto-preparations.
  M.E. Kooffreh , E.V. Ikpeme , E.E. Ekerette and N.O. Eyo
  Morphological and behavioral genetic traits of simple inheritance indicate ethnic variation and have been widely employed in population variation studies. Five selected genetic traits of simple inheritance, ABO and Rh (D) blood phenotype was investigated to establish the inheritance pattern, prevalence and to assess association between the traits, ABO rhesus phenotypes and gender of 45 unrelated families living in Calabar. Blood group O was the most prevalent (55.2%) followed by B (21.6%), A (18.8%) while the least was AB (4.4%). The majorities (91.6%) were Rh (D) positive and 8.4% were Rh (D) negative. The frequency of the 5 genetic traits were earlobe (69.2% free earlobe, 30.8% attached earlobe), hand-clasping (51.6% right hand-claspers, 48.4% left hand-claspers), dimples (21.2% had facial dimples, 78.8% had no dimples), mid-digital hair (presence in 92%, absence in 8%) and tongue rolling (48.4% rollers, 51.6% non-roller). There was association between earlobe and blood group, sex and hand clasping, sex and facial dimples and between tongue rolling and sex. Chi-square analysis of the inheritance pattern of these genetic traits provides strong evidence for a familial and probably a genetic component in the control of these traits. The pattern also showed that the traits are inherited in dominance versus recessive manner.
  O. Udensi , E.A. Edu , E.J. Umana and E.V. Ikpeme
  The negligence of breeders and farmers to explore and exploit landraces of pulses is worrisome and urgent measures needed to be set in motion to forestall major future crisis, taking into cognizance the high adaptability and nutritive values accredited to them. This study focused on the estimation of genetic variability and heritability of desirable morphological characters in Fiofio (Cajans cajan) and Olaudi and Akidi (Vigna unguiculata) with the aim of conservation. Three landraces of pulses were sown using randomized complete block design. The field experiment was carried out at the University of Calabar Experimental Farm, University of Calabar, Calabar, during 2008-2010 growing season. Phenotypic and genotypic variances and coefficients of variation and genetic advance were estimated on yield and yield-related traits. The results showed that there were considerable variations among the pulses for the traits studied. The result revealed high genetic variability in the number of leaf per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant, number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant. It also showed that genetic variability in pod length and 100-seed weight was low. Heritability estimates obtained in the result were very high though the magnitude of genetic variability in the yield and yield-related traits was not proportional to the heritability estimates. The traits studied also show high genetic advance. These explicitly showed that there are sufficient genetic variations to warrant conservation and improvement in these extinction-threatened pulses studied.
  E.V. Ikpeme , U.B. Ekaluo , M.E. Kooffreh and O. Udensi
  This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3x4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p<0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants of bioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.
  U.B. Ekaluo , P.B. Udoh , E.V. Ikpeme and O. Udensi
  Effect of soybean (Glycine max) on serum level of some sex hormones: testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH), estradiol and prolactin in male rats was investigated. Twenty male albino rats of 12 weeks old with similar body weights were assigned to four groups of 5 rats each and treatment with soybean meal at 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples collected through cardiac puncture were assayed for levels of hormones. There were dose-dependent effects of the soybean meal on the serum concentration of the hormones. The treatment significantly reduced the levels of testosterone and FSH in the serum while it significantly increased the levels of estradiol, LH/ICSH and prolactin. The results show that soybean (Glycine max) had strong capability to disrupt hormonal functions. Hence, its indiscriminate use could increase the risk of infertility in males.
  E.V. Ikpeme , L.E. Okonko and O.U. Udensi
  This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, singly and in combination on reproductive physiology of male albino rats. Thirty six mature male rats were used for this study. Completely randomized design was used in a 3×3 factorial format. Meaning there were 3 treatments (chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin) and each treatment had 3 groups (A, B and C) and each group had 4 rats. Group A was the control and received distilled water. Group B received 5 mg kg–1 b.wt., of treatment while Group C received 10 mg kg–1 b.wt., of treatment. Treatments were administered via oral gavage and lasted for 65 days. The rats were sacrificed; blood and sperm samples were collected and examined. The result revealed that the treatments significantly (p<0.05) reduced epididymal sperm motility, viability and count of rats. While sperm head abnormality increased significantly in treated rats. Furthermore, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone and prolactin levels reduced significantly (p<0.05) in treated rats compared to those in the control group. The findings of this study therefore indicate that repeated oral exposure to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, both singly and in combination had adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of male albino rats.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette , S.O. Usen and S.F. Usoroh
  The current research was aimed at comparing the leaf extracts of two medicinal plants (Moringa oleifera and Azadiracta indica) for antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials in different extracting solvents (absolute ethanol, 70 and 50% ethanol). Different in vitro assays such as total phenolic and flavonoid content, 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating activity, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were employed in the study. The results revealed that A. indica contained more phenols and flavonoids than M. oleifera with the different extracting solvents. The amount of phenols and flavonoids in A. indica played a pivotal role in scavenging more of the DPPH radical at a lower inhibitory concentration, IC50 of 77.94 μg mL-1 than in M. oleifera at 118.96 μg mL-1 in absolute ethanol. Moringa oleifera was a better scavenger of the DPPH radical in 70 and 50% ethanol. In absolute ethanol, A. indica also chelated 50% of the metal ion at IC50 of 0.22 μg mL-1 which was even better than ascorbic acid (5.95 μg mL-1) and gallic acid (0.503 μg mL-1) standards. The values for A. indica were also comparably better than those of M. oleifera for reducing power and total antioxidant capacity at the respective concentrations. The results are indicative of the antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials of M. oleifera and A. indica. Comparatively, A. indica was better than M. oleifera in doing the job and absolute ethanol extracts were better than 70 and 50% ethanol extracts in the scavenging potential.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , E.E. Ekerette and C.I. Chukwu
  This study was aimed at assessing antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) and guava (Psidium guajava) leaf in different extracting solvents (absolute ethanol, 70% ethanol and 50% ethanol) via in vitro assays including; Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), DPPH radical scavenging, metal chelating activity, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. The results obtained indicated that both medicinal plants are antioxidant reservoir. The TPC and TFC of P. guajava was more in all the extracting solvents compared to V. amygdalina. The Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) of P. guajava for DPPH radical scavenging were; absolute ethanol (1.564 μg mL-1), 70% ethanol (1.723 μg mL-1), 50% ethanol (4.102 μg mL-1) while V. amygdalina were; absolute ethanol (33.18 μg mL-1), 70% ethanol (56.21 μg mL-1), 50% ethanol (73.46 μg mL-1). Both DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating activities of the two medicinal plants were dependent on the amount of phenols and flavonoids in the extract. The absorbance values for both reducing power and total antioxidant capacity of the two extracts also indicated their antioxidant potentials. Thus, the results obtained from the current study are indications of the possible use of the two plants in combating free radical related diseases often orchestrated by oxidative stress conditions, especially P. guajava since it showed more antioxidant activities than V. amygdalina following the in vitro results.
  E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette and U.H. Okon
  Aspartame (ASP) consumption has been reported to implicate oxidative stress and antioxidant supplements from plant origin are one of the safest ways of averting their effect in the body. The current study was aimed at ascertaining the ability of aspartame (ASP) to induce oxidative stress in rats as well as assessing the potential of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds extracts in averting the aspartame induced oxidative stress. This was done using sperm parameters and biochemical assays such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, melonaldehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphate (ALP). Forty eight sexually matured male albino rats were divided into six groups (A-F) with eight rats in each group. Group A served as the positive control and received physiological saline. Group B served as the negative control and were administered with 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of aspartame (ASP). Rats in group C were administered with 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+500 mg kg–1 b.wt., of ginger extracts while rats in group D were administered with 1000 ASP+1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of ginger extracts. On the other hand, rats in group E received 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+500 mg kg–1 b.wt., of watermelon seed extracts while rats in group F received 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of watermelon seed extracts. The result revealed that administration of ASP reduced sperm viability, sperm count and increased sperm head abnormalities significantly (p<0.05) while sperm motility was not affected by ASP administration in the rats. Superoxide dismutase and GPx levels were increased significantly by ginger and watermelon seeds extracts. Although ginger extract reduced more of lipid peroxidation (MDA), watermelon seeds extract increased the activities of SOD, GPx and reduced AST, ALT and ALP in the liver of rats at 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., than the extract of ginger. Thus, the extracts of these two medicinal plants are possible antioxidant reservoir and may provide reliable solution in averting oxidative stress pathologies.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , U.U. Uno , S.O. Umeh and F.A. Erem
  This study investigated the protecting potential of Aqueous Guava (Psidium guajava) Leaf Extract (AGLE) against caffeine induced spermatotoxicity in albino rat models. Thirty healthy and sexually matured albino rats were divided into five groups of six rats each using a completely randomized design. They were treated with caffeine and AGLE combinations orally for 65 days. The result showed that caffeine significantly (p<0.05) reduced sperm viability, sperm count and sperm motility, while sperm head abnormality increased in caffeine treated rats when compared to the control. However, AGLE significantly (p<0.05) protected the treated albino rat models from caffeine induced spermatotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. These results show that AGLE is effective in protecting albino rat models against caffeine induced spermatotoxicity in a dose dependent manner.
 
 
 
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