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Articles by E.U. Eyong
Total Records ( 8 ) for E.U. Eyong
  M.U. Eteng , B.J. Bassey , I.J. Atangwho , G.E. Egbung , E.U. Eyong , P.E. Ebong and A.O. Abolaji
  Hypoglycemic and biochemical effects of herbal extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Compositae), Catharantus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceace) and chlorpropamide were compared and status of macrovascular complications evaluated using biochemical indices in normal and diabetic rats. The phytochemistry of the herbs was also assessed. Hypoglycemic activity of the herbs and chlorpropamide was evaluated on diabetic and non-diabetic rats but biochemical effects of the treatments was evaluated only on diabetic rats, assigned into four study groups (n = 8). Group I (control) received placebo (30% ethanol), treatment group II was gavaged with chlorpropamide in dose 14.28 mg kg-1 body weight, while groups III and IV were administered extracts of V. amygdalina (400 mg kg-1 body weight) and C. roseus (400 mg kg-1 body weight), respectively in 30% ethanol vehicle for 21 days. Results of the phytochemistry assessment identified alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins in V. amygdalina and C. roseus. Triterpenes were identified only in V. amygdalina and anthroquinones only in C. roseus. All three treatments produced hypoglycaemic activity in normal and diabetic rats and significantly (p<0.05 to <0.01) reduced triglyceride and total Cholesterol relative to controls. C. roseus alone significantly (p<0.01) elevated HDL-Cholesterol. Serum protein significantly (p<0.05) increased in all treatments compared with controls. Urea levels decreased in all the treatments but more dramatic with chlorpropamide. Aminotransferase activity was not altered except serum ALT which was reduced in treated rats. Electrolyte profile showed dilutional hyponatremia with chlorpropamide treatment, which was absent in C. roseus treatment but mild in V. amygdalina. These changes in biochemical indices of toxicity and macrovascular complications are discussed with respect to the comparative therapeutic benefits of the three treatments.
  I.J. Atangwho , P.E. Ebong , M.U. Eteng , E.U. Eyong and A.U. Obi
  This research assessed the hypoglycemic action of ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina del and its impact on selected indices of kidney function in experimental diabetic rat models. Twenty-one Wistar rats (120-160 g) assigned to 3 groups of seven rats each were used. Groups 1 and 3, constituting the diabetic (DC) and normal controls (NC), respectively were both given placebo treatment, whereas group 2 was the test group of animals administered the extract (400 mg kg-1 body weight) by gastric-intubation for 14 days. Results of analyses of serum electrolytes and biochemical indices showed: significant reductions (p<0.05) in glucose, urea and sodium concentrations of the V. amygdalina ethanolic extract treated group (144.14±25.83, 81.60±16.52 and 65.00±6.24, respectively) relative to their respective controls (247.25±4.83, 122.08±10.60 and 116.62±12.00). Serum chloride levels of the test group also reduced, whereas, that of potassium and creatinine were elevated with respect to their normal control values. However, these later changes were non-significant (p>0.05). Histological changes in the kidney tissues such as necrosis of tubules, degeneration of cells of glomerular capsule and partial obliteration of glomerular tuft observed in diabetic animals were reversed in extract treated diabetic group. Vernonia amygdalina extract besides its hypoglycemic action, can protect against kidney impairments due to diabetes, but may induce dilutional hyponatraemia.
  C.N.C. Ugochukwu , P.E. Ebong and E.U. Eyong
  This study determined the influence of doses of halofantrine hydrochloride, a phenanthrene methanol drug used in the therapeutic treatment of malaria on the estradiol levels of female wistar rats. A suspension of the drug at a dose of 0.5ml/kg and 1ml/kg body weight three times at six hourly intervals were administered orally to different groups of mature female rats for 5 and 10 days duration, control groups received similar treatment doses of normal saline. The animals were sacrificed on the 5th and 10th day after drug administration by cervical dislocation. Whole blood samples were collected for white blood cell count. From the plasma, the hormonal level was determined by radio-immunoassay and the activities of AST, ALT and ALP were also determined. The level of estradiol following 5 and 10 days treatment was higher significantly (p<0.05) in both groups compared to the control. The activities of ALT, AST and ALP increased significantly (p<0.05). The white blood cell count also increased in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggest that the drug might have some hepatotoxic effects.
  Y. Alozie , M.I. Akpanabiatu , E.U. Eyong , I.B. Umoh and G. Alozie
  The crude protein contents and amino acid compositions of two varieties of Dioscorea dumetorum (edible and wild) were determined. The crude protein (g/l00g) of the wild variety (11.37) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the edible variety (7.0). The amino acid profiles showed both varieties to be limiting in lysine, methionine and cystine. The wild variety had tryptophan (0.60g/100g total aa), phenylalanine (3.01g/100g total aa), threonine (2.93g/100g total aa) and valine (3.6g/100g total aa) in substantial amounts when compared to the reference FAO pattern. Aspartic acid (4.47-9.28/100g total aa) was the most abundant amino acid in both varieties with the highest amount recorded for the wild variety. The chemical scores of the essential amino acids were tryptophan (60.0), threonine (43.5), valine (39.6), methionine (28.0) isoleucine (34.5), leucine (32.0), tyrosine and phenylalanine (39.0) and lysine (20.72) for the edible and tryptophan (117.0), threonine (73.25), valine (72.0), methionine (54.0) isoleucine (64.75), leucine (65.71), tyrosine and phenylalanine (83.67) and lysine (44.18) for the for the wild variety. This results being the first amino acid profiles recorded for this yam suggests that the wild D. dumetorum is richer in amino acid content than the edible variety and is likely to be of more benefit in human and animal nutrition.
  M.A. Mgbekem , M.E. John , I.B. Umoh , E.U. Eyong , N. Ukam and B.D. Omotola
  Increased lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several aspects of HIV disease pathogenesis including loss of immune function, chronic weight loss, inflammatory response and decreased immune cells proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma antioxidant micronutrients and lipid peroxidation indices in HIV positive clients (50 untreated-Not on Antiretroviral Therapy (NART), 50 on treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy-ART) and 28 sero-negative control subjects (>27 age-matched). Plasma antioxidant vitamins and lipid profile were measured. Beta-carotene levels were Control (3.44±0.46 RE), NART (5.17±0.67 RE) and ART (7.53±1.83 RE) with ART, being significantly (p<0.05) higher in ART subjects than controls. The corresponding ascorbic acid levels (mg/dl) were 1.40±0.10, 2.30±0.20 and 1.58±0.10. Levels of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in NART subjects compared with ART and controls. In contrast, the uric acid level was much lower (p<0.05) in NART subjects than ART and control groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly higher in subjects on ART (2403.73±310.99 μ/ml) than NART (1628.11±111.56 μ/ml) and control (1459.58±119.11 μ/ml). The lipid profile showed substantially elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in NART subjects compared with ART and controls. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol showed no significance among the groups. Results showed increase in oxidative stress and a weakened antioxidant defense system in HIV positive persons, especially those not on antiretroviral therapy.
  M.A. Mgbekem , I.J. Atangwho , E. Duke , N. Ukam , M. Ojong , M.E. John , E.U. Eyong and C. Chiotu
  Alterations in nutritional status are common with HIV infections. Wasting syndrome increases predisposition to opportunistic infections. Food consumption pattern is a known determinant factor for nutritional problems among PLWH. This study was conducted at the Heart-to-Heart Clinic of General Hospital Calabar, to assess food consumption patterns of PLWH. One hundred and twenty eight (128) subjects (50 males and 78 females) made of 50 HIV+ve on treatment (ART), 50HIV+ve not on treatment (NART) and 28 non infected control group. Ethical clearance and consent was obtained from Centre for Clinical Governance, Research and Training, Ministry of Health Calabar while participation was voluntary. Data collection was done by trained field workers for measurement of weight and height, food frequency questionnaire. The results showed significant differences in consumption pattern of carbohydrates (chi = 15.994, df = 6, p<0.05), legumes (chi = 9.871, df = 4, p<0.05), fats/oil at p<0.001 level. The most commonly consumed foods were cassava and cassava products, plantain, rice, bread, fish and some fruits and vegetables. Vegetables and fruits were consumed only 3-6 times a week. Body Mass Index (BMI) was significantly lower in NARTs. This study showed that food consumption patterns and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) are synergistically interwoven among PLWH.
  C.O. Ibegbulem , C.U. Igwe , E.U. Eyong , E.U. Essien , M.O. Wegwu and D. Akachukwu
  Traditional medicines are administered mostly as decoctions. The mechanism of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of Terminalia littoralis decoction used in ethno-medicine is hypothesized. The decoction prepared from fallen dry leaves of T. littoralis was screened for its relevant phytochemical contents. The pH, concentration and fibre content were of the decoction determined. A feeding study using the decoction as the only source of fluid was carried out for 35 days using albino rates of the Wistar strain. Anthropometric measurements and serological examinations were also carried out. Hypothetical deductions were based on the presence of phytochemical and biochemical constituents with reported pharmacological activities in relation to pharmacological outcome. The decoction did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the liver function indices. It however significantly (p<0.05) increased body weight and conversion of feed mass to body mass but reduced serum LDL cholesterol concentration and LDL-cholesterol/ HDL-cholesterol ratio. The hypothesized mechanisms were that decoction’s phytosterols competitively inhibited uptake of dietary cholesterol by intestinal cells and HMG-CoA reductase activity, the fibre content reduced enterohepatic bile acid cycle, the catechins increased LDL receptor activity and the tannin, flavonoid and saponin prevented the oxidation of LDL. In conclusion, the phytochemical and biochemical constituents of the Terminalia littoralis decoction lowered LDL-cholesterol through a combination of different biochemical mechanisms.
  F.E. Uboh , Saviour Ufot , Eve Mboso and E.U. Eyong
  This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Costus afer leaves’ juice (CALJ) on the functional integrity of the renal tissues in rats orally exposed to nitrocellulose thinner (NCT). Three groups of six rats each, were orally administered distilled water, NCT (30.0 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and NCT (30.0 mg kg-1 b.wt.) in combination with 600 mg kg-1 b.wt. of CALJ (one hour before NCT administration), respectively for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed after 12 h fast, on the 29th day of the experiment, blood collected through cardiac puncture for serum urea, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, creatinine, kidneys for renal tissues malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities determination. The results showed that NCT caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum urea, BUN, uric acid, creatinine and renal tissue MDA levels, as well as decrease in renal tissue GPx and SOD activities, compared to control group. These results indicated that NCT’s constituents and their metabolites are nephrotoxic. However, it was observed that administration of CALJ protected the renal tissues against the NCT-induced nephrotoxicity, as indicated by the restoration of serum urea, BUN, uric acid and creatinine levels, as well as renal tissue MDA, GPx and SOD activities to the control range. Also the tubular epithelial necrosis and atrophy of the glomeruli, observed to be associated with exposure to NCT were restored to normal on treatment with CALJ. This study strongly suggested that CALJ’s constituents possess a protective effect against NCT-induced renal tissues damage and reflected the beneficial role of Costus afer in the treatment of various clinical disorders.
 
 
 
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