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Articles by E.U. Etuk
Total Records ( 11 ) for E.U. Etuk
  E.U. Etuk , P.A. Onyeyili and B.Y. Muhammed
  Pharmacokinetics studies were performed in healthy red Sokoto goats using chloramphenicol 25 mg kg-1. Following the drug administration intravenously and intramuscularly samples of plasma were obtained in the goats at various time intervals. Measurable blood levels of the drug were obtained in goats for 6 h after intravenous injection and for 9 h after intramuscular administration. A mean plasma concentration of chloramphenicol (25.63±2.01 μg mL-1) was obtained at 0.08 h (5 min) after the intravenous administration of the drug while the peak plasma concentration of the drug following intramuscular treatment was 9.64±0.74 μg mL-1 after 0.25 h (30 min). The apparent volume of distribution and the total body clearance of chloramphenicol from the Sokoto red goats were higher after intramuscular than intravenous administration. About 80% of the drug administered intramuscularly reached the plasma. This result has yielded baseline data for further investigation(s) of the drug.
  E.U. Etuk and P.A. Onyeyili
  A comparative pharmacokinetic study of chloramphenicol (25 mg kg-1 intravenous) by Chemical assay in normal and water-deprived Sokoto red goats revealed that the plasma drug concentrations were significantly higher in water-deprived goats. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like Area Under the Curve (AUC), half- life of elimination (t½β) were significantly lower whereas the total body clearance (Cl) and elimination rate constant (β) were significantly higher in water-deprived goats as compared to normal goats. The mean resident time of the drug also increased from six to nine hours after water deprivation. The higher mean plasma concentration of the drug after water deprivation obtained in the study may indicate the need to reduce the dose of this drug in dehydrated patients to avoid dose-dependent toxicity.
  E.U. Etuk and P.A. Onyeyili
  This study was to determine the effect of salmonella typhimurium infection on the plasma kinetic profile of chloramphenicol in the locally breed goats of Sokoto state, Nortwestern Nigeria. Chloramphenicol administered intravenously at the dose of 25 mg kg-1 body weight to healthy and salmonella typhimurium infected goats; assayed chemically and pharmacokinetic parameters assessed by use of two compartment open model has shown significant changes in the kinetic profile of the drug after the infection. The mean plasma concentrations of the drug were lower in the inoculated goats. The volume of distribution (Vdβ), total body clearance (Cl) and elimination constant (β) were significantly higher while the distribution half life (t½α), elimination half life (t½β) and the Area Under the Curve (AUC) were significantly reduced after the infection. Salmonella typhimurium infection has altered the distribution of chloramphenicol, increased the loss of the drug and reduced its mean residence time in the body of the goats.
  E.U. Etuk , A.M. Umarudeen , P.A. Onyeyili and A.T. Elsa
  A comparative plasma kinetics of sulphadimidine (100 mg kg-1, intravenous) studied by chemical assay in non-starved and starved rabbits has shown that; the mean peak plasma concentrations of the drug (101.70±5.74 μg mL-1) was higher in the starved than the non-starved animals (72.45±6.22 μg mL-1). The volume of distribution of the drug (Vdβ) and the total body clearance (CL) were significantly reduced after deprivation of food for 48 h in the animals. Equally, the elimination rate constant (β = 0.078 h-1) was higher in the non-starved than in the starved rabbits (β = 0.052 h-1). The study therefore concludes that, short term starvation has significantly increased the plasma concentrations and altered the kinetic profile of sulphadimidine following intravenous administration in rabbits. Thus, this factor should be considered when administering the drug to avoid dose dependent toxicity.
  E.U. Etuk , P.A. Onyeyili and S.O. Bello
  A comparative pharmacokinetic study of chloramphenicol (25 mg kg-1 intravenous) by chemical assay method and its combination with sulphamethazine (33 mg kg-1) in Sokoto red goats has revealed that the mean peak plasma concentrations at 0.08 h post drug administration were not significantly different. However, various pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly altered (p<0.05) after the combination therapy; the total body clearance (Cl) and elimination constant (β) were significantly higher whereas the half life of elimination (t½ β) and the distribution rate constant were significantly lower. These changes observed in this study could be an indication that, the combination therapy may require a reduced chloramphenicol dose without necessarily minimising the efficiency of the drug and this may also possibly reduce the risk of dose-related toxicity.
  E.U. Etuk
  The in vivo response of malaria parasites to chloroquine among the urban and rural dwellers in Sokoto state, Nigeria has been studied. A total of seventy-eight patients with acute uncomplicated malaria were selected for the study from two distinct centres representing the urban and rural dwellers of the state. All the treated cases from the rural centre (Umaruma) responded well; both the clinical features of the disease and the parasites in the blood cleared within three days of initiating treatment and there was no relapse after twenty-one days follow up. But 19.8% (5) of the patients from the urban centre showed resistance at R1 level to chloroquine. This study therefore concluded that, chloroquine is more effective for the treatment of malaria in the rural than the urban dwellers possibly because of the rampant abuse of the drug by the later group.
  E.U. Etuk , A.M. Umarudeen , P.A. Onyeyili and A.T. Elsa
  The tissue concentrations and kinetics of sulphadimidine (100 mg kg-1; intravenous) has been studied in normal and starved rabbits by chemical assay method. The results indicate that, different concentrations of the drug were obtained in the various tissues (liver, heart, kidney brain and skeletal muscle) examined. The drug persisted in the brain and skeletal muscle of the animals up to 12 days after its administration. The starved rabbits maintained consistently higher concentrations of the drug in its tissues as compared to the fed ones. The half-life of the drug was shortest in the liver (5.63 and 6.11 h) of the non-starved and starved rabbits, respectively. The elimination rate constants were correspondingly higher in the liver (0.210 and 0.230 h), respectively for the non-starved and starved rabbits. The study therefore concludes that, acute starvation can raise the tissue concentrations of sulphadimidine in rabbits and the safe withdrawal time following the administration of the drug should be in excess of twelve days.
  E.U. Etuk , B.M. Agaie , P.A. Onyeyili and C.U. Ottah
  This study examines the effect of aqueous extract of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark on castor oil induced diarrhoea in albino rats. Graded doses of the extract (100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1) were administered orally to three groups of rats (n = 6) before induction of diarrhoea with castor oil. Another two groups of the animals were treated with normal saline (control) and diphenoxylate, a conventional anti-diarrhoea drug respectively. In a separate experiment, an isolated ileum of rabbit was mounted in an organ bath containing aerated Tyrode solution. The tissue was stimulated with acetylcholine (2 μg) and its responses recorded. Various concentrations of the extract (2, 5, 10 and 20 μg) were applied to the tissue and the responses recorded. The responses were similarly recorded when acetylcholine was separately combined with atropine and 10 μg of the extract. The extract produced a significant inhibition of the castor oil induced diarrhoea in the animals in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the extract relaxed isolated rabbit ileum and reduced the contractions induced by acetylcholine in a manner similar to atropine during the in vitro studies. These findings suggest that, aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii possesses anti-diarrhoea effect, which may be related to anticholinergic mechanisms.
  E.U. Etuk , H.A. Suberu , I.G. Ameh and K. Abubakar
  The aqueous leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus (Leguminoceae) was investigated for possible antimycotic effect in Sprague dawley rats. The extract was tested against moulds (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus) and dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum). The extract at 20-40 mg kg-1 body weight significantly (p<0.05) and dose dependently inhibited the growth rate of the moulds and dermatophytes by over 60 and 97%, respectively. In the in vivo study, there was also a significant reduction in the number of dermatophyte spores recovered from the infected sites treated with the extract as compared with the non treated sites. The extract produced no sign of acute toxicity or death when a limit dose of 2 g kg-1 body weight was administered orally in rats. Collectively, these results suggest that the extract possess antimycotic effect and appears to be safe when given orally at a limit dose of 2 g kg-1 body weight of the rats. This therefore supports the use of Pterocarpus erinaceus leaf extract traditionally for the treatment of fungal skin diseases.
  E.U. Etuk and U.U. Francis
  The acute toxicity and efficacy of Psidium guajava leaves water extract on Salmonella typhi infected wistar rats had been studied. Oral administration of 10–50 mg/100 g of the extract showed no significant harmful effect in the animals after 72 h. The administration of 10-30 mg/100 g of the extract 12 h through the same route to rats infected with Salmonella typhi produced a recovery within seven days. The Salmonella infection equally responded to chloramphenicol, a conventional antibiotic used in the treatment of this infection. These results suggested that the water extract of Psidium guajava leave was non toxic at the tested doses and effective against Salmonella infection in wistar rats.
  E.U. Etuk , V. Igbokwe , O.P. Ajagbonna and M.O. Egua
  There have been earlier reports of herbal medicine toxicity elsewhere in Nigeria, China and India. The present study examined the possible acute and subchronic toxic effects of Nasara Pile Syrup (NPS), a Nigerian commercial polyherbal medicine in albino rats. Graded doses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.75 mL/100 g) of the herbal medicine were administered to 4 groups of albino rats and their responses observed for 72 h to study the acute toxic effect of the herbal medicine. In the subchronic toxicity study, the rats were treated orally with repeated doses of the extract for 28 days after which the animals were slaughtered and samples from the liver, kidney and heart obtained for histopathological examination. The results showed that, administration of a single dose of the herbal medicine did not produce any harmful effect or death in the animals. But in the repeated dose treatment, the herbal medicine produced a number of deaths and damages on the kidney, liver and heart of the rats that were evidenced by histopathological lesions in a dose dependent manner. Based on the results, it was concluded that, prolong administration of NPS may cause harmful effect in the consumers, therefore, the general public should exercise caution in taking this herbal remedy and they should be aware of the impending health risk that may be associated with it.
 
 
 
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