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Articles by E.U. Essien
Total Records ( 3 ) for E.U. Essien
  J.I. Ndem , M.I. Akpanabiatu and E.U. Essien
  Periwinkle (Tympanotonus fustcatus), Crayfish (cambarellus diminutus) and Bonka fish (Ethimalosa fimbriata) are local marine food sources of omega-3 fatty acid. Groundnut oil, corn oil and soybean oil are notably high in omega-6 fatty acids. The present study compared changes in haematological and biochemical indices in rats fed with local marine foods (periwinkle, bonka fish and crayfish) and vegetable oils (groundnut, soybean and corn oil) enriched meals. Rats in all the experimental groups had a significant (P< 0.05) increase in the Hb, PCV and RBC values and a non-significant decrease (P> 0.05) in the WBC counts, when compared with the control. The results of the lipid profile of the test groups on omega-3 and omega-6 enriched pellets were significantly lower than that of control but the HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in these groups. Similarly rats on pellets enriched with local marine foods (periwinkle, bonka fish and crayfish) considered to be rich in omega-3 fatty acid had significant decreased (P < 0.05) cholesterol, and HDL – C concentrations while TG, VLDL and LDL-C increased significantly when compared with control. These results suggest that consumption of diet enriched with periwinkle, bonka fish, crayfish and oil rich in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular disease. This may be one mayor reason for low incident of coronary heart disease among the poor rural people that consumed basically periwinkle, bonka fish and cray fish as their main sources of protein.
  G.E. Egbung , E.U. Essien and I.J. Atangwho
  This study was carried out to investigate the effect of trans fatty acids on haematological indices. This was done by supplementing the diets fed to the albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of thermally oxidized palm oil and margarine as sources of trans fatty acids. Fifty albino Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly selected into five groups of ten rats. Group 1 rats serving as the control received only the stock diet. Group 2 received 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% margarine. Group 3 was fed with 75% rat pellet and 25% margarine. The fourth group was fed with 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% thermally oxidized palm oil. Group 4 was fed with 75% rat pellet supplemented with 25% thermally oxidized palm oil. The feeding experiment lasted for six weeks at the end of which rats were sacrificed for determination of haematological indices. Results showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, White Blood Cell (WBC) and platelet counts, Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in all test groups. This probably suggests that trans fatty acids may adversely affect the health of an individual and should be reduced in diet.
  C.O. Ibegbulem , C.U. Igwe , E.U. Eyong , E.U. Essien , M.O. Wegwu and D. Akachukwu
  Traditional medicines are administered mostly as decoctions. The mechanism of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of Terminalia littoralis decoction used in ethno-medicine is hypothesized. The decoction prepared from fallen dry leaves of T. littoralis was screened for its relevant phytochemical contents. The pH, concentration and fibre content were of the decoction determined. A feeding study using the decoction as the only source of fluid was carried out for 35 days using albino rates of the Wistar strain. Anthropometric measurements and serological examinations were also carried out. Hypothetical deductions were based on the presence of phytochemical and biochemical constituents with reported pharmacological activities in relation to pharmacological outcome. The decoction did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the liver function indices. It however significantly (p<0.05) increased body weight and conversion of feed mass to body mass but reduced serum LDL cholesterol concentration and LDL-cholesterol/ HDL-cholesterol ratio. The hypothesized mechanisms were that decoction’s phytosterols competitively inhibited uptake of dietary cholesterol by intestinal cells and HMG-CoA reductase activity, the fibre content reduced enterohepatic bile acid cycle, the catechins increased LDL receptor activity and the tannin, flavonoid and saponin prevented the oxidation of LDL. In conclusion, the phytochemical and biochemical constituents of the Terminalia littoralis decoction lowered LDL-cholesterol through a combination of different biochemical mechanisms.
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