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Articles by E.S. Soliman
Total Records ( 3 ) for E.S. Soliman
  E.S. Soliman , E. Taha , K.D. Infante , K. Laboy , M.A. Sobieh and P.G. Reddy
  Poultry industry usually exposing birds to a variety of actions and stressors includs fasting for gastrointestinal emptying before transportation and where birds are often exposed to high environmental temperature during the summer months. These environmental stressors may have influences on bird performance and susceptibility to pathogens such as Salmonella enteritidis by altering the intestinal micrbiota and changes in the gut integrity. Approach: This research was conducted to show that acute stressors in the poultry production can induce changes in the normal intestinal microbiota and epithelium structure and execratory functions, which may cause an increase in the opportunities of attachment of Salmonella enteritidis. Results: Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of 24 h feed withdrawal with 24 h exposure to high temperature (30°C) on intestinal characteristics of broilers. Attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissue was determined using an in vitro ileal loop assay. Changes in commensally intestinal microbial populations were determined using gel electrophoresis and alterations in ileal morphology were determined histologically. The results showed that attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissues increased by 1.5 logs (9.05 log10 Vs 7.59 log10 Salmonella enteritidis/g of ileal tissue; p = 0.0006) in broilers fasted for 24 h also, ileal tissues from birds subjected to 30°C for 24 h had increased the attachment of Salmonella enteritidis (8.77 log10 Vs 8.50 log10 Salmonella enteritidis/g of ileum; p = 0.01) compared with birds held at 23°C. Exposure to 30°C for 24 h also altered the microbial structure in the ileum and cecum. Where subjecting birds to 30°C for 24 h reduced the crypt depth (6.0 Vs 7.8 μm, respectively; p = 0.002), but it had no effect on villus height or villus: Crypt ratio. Conclusion: The findings of the experiment explained the mechanisms by which stressors alters the normal intestinal characterization and induces susceptibility to enteric infection. Future work should focus on the use of prophylactic measures to reduce the stress conditions causing alteration of the intestinal microbiota and changes in gut integrity like considering the probiotic organisms the offer a promising solution for reducing pathogen colonization when fed orally.
  E.S. Soliman , H. Busby , C. Kilpatrick , Y. Nagamalleswari , P. McDuff and M.A.A. Sobieh
  Problem statement: Genetic line differences in resistance of layer hens and young chicks to Salmonella entritidis have been identified through a lot of studies. That is why the agricultural industry was prepared for the potential phasing out of antibiotics for use in controlling bacterial pathogens. Early infection may result in long term colonization of layers with Salmonella entritidis, resulting in shedding into table or hatching eggs. Approach: This study was carried to evaluate the genetic factors underlying early response to Salmonella entritidis, genetic line differences in mortality and pathogen load at two sites (cecal lumen and spleen) were investigated. At day of hatch, chicks of four genetic lines were intra-esophageally inoculated with one of three doses of Salmonella entritidis phage type 13 A. Results: There was a significant effect (p≤0.001) of genetic line on chick 6 days survival. The effect of genetic line was significant (p≤0.05) on survivorsí Salmonella entritidis burden in cecal content but not on Salmonella entritidis load per gram of spleen. Salmonella entritidis pathogen load of the spleen and the cecal content were not significantly correlated, indicating that independent host mechanisms are partly responsible for these two traits. Conclusion: Future Salmonella entritidis control mechanism in poultry may be the same as it is used these days but it has to be for longer term sustainability, genetic resistance should be pursued. Sufficient genetic line variation should exists to suggest that it is feasible to effectively choose among pure breeder lines for those exhibits reduced Salmonella entritidis induced mortality and cecal content Salmonella entritidis pathogen load in young layer chicks.
  E.S. Soliman , P.G. Reddy , R. Nimmanapelli and E.M. Abouelhassan
  Six experiments were conducted during which a total of 12 congenic lines homozygous for various B-complex alleles, were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with either of two isolates of Salmonella enteritidis. Because these B alleles were expressed on a common genetic background and mortality differences among lines were statistically significant in three of the six trials and morbidity (body weight) differences were significant in another trial; it is suggested that B-complex alleles affect the degree of immunity to these isolates. When all lines and trials were compared, line 342 (BC/BC) emerged as particularly resistant, whereas lines 253 (B18/B18) and 254 (B15/B15) were more susceptible. The remainders of the lines were of neutral (intermediate) susceptibility. Sex did not appear to influence the results of the challenge, but more resistance was observed with an increase in the age at inoculation. Although the mechanism that determined this resistance is unknown it was present as early as 3 d of age and it is suggested that complement proteins, which have a known role in protection from bacterial infections and are encoded by genes located within the B-complex, or acute phase proteins, may account for these observations.
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