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Articles by E.S. Amadi
Total Records ( 9 ) for E.S. Amadi
  E.S. Amadi , C.A. Oyeka , I. Okoli , J.I. Ihedioha and I.R. Iroha
  The possible curative and preventive effect of Baphia nittida extract on insipient caries and caries-free rats were investigated. About 200 mg mL-1 of Baphia nittida extract were intra-orally administered to the teeth surfaces of different rat groups. Evidence of development of caries was determined by direct observation, probing, microbial count and radiography. The result of the study showed that there was no evidence of dental caries among the non-insipient caries rat groups fed simultaneously with 70% sucrose-in-diet and extract of Baphia nittida. Similarly, the rat groups having insipient caries did not exhibit signs of dental caries after the administration of Baphia nittida extract. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the pre and post microbial count of the insipient caries rat groups given Baphia nittida extract. Also, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the pre and post microbial count of the caries-free rat groups given Baphia nittida extract twice daily. The result generally suggested that Baphia nittida extract has in vivo preventive and curative potential on dental caries in rats simultaneously fed with 70% sucrose-in-diet.
  I.R. Iroha , A.E. Oji , O.K. Nwosu and E.S. Amadi
  The antimicrobial activities of Savlon®, Izal® and Z-Germicide® disinfectants against 23 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated. The agar well diffusion technique and broth dilution technique for determining Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC μg mL-1) were employed. The overall result of the study showed that Savlon® and Izal® have appreciable antimicrobial activity against the P. aeruginosa isolates, while Z-Germicide® produced low activity. The use of Savlon® and Izal® disinfectants in hospitals and clinics in Nigeria, is hereby suggested.
  E.S. Amadi , C.A. Oyeka , R.A. Onyeagba , O.C. Ugbogu and I. Okoli
  The antimicrobial effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Breynia nivosus, Ageratum conyzoides and the combination of herbal preparations on Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries patients attending the federal dental clinic Enugu, Nigeria was investigated. The hot water and ethanolic extracts of Breynia nivosus showed zones of inhibition ranging from 10-15 mm at concentrations of 25-400 mg mL-1. The Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) was 25 mg mL-1. All the extracts of Ageratum conyziodes had no inhibitory effect on the test organism. The herbal combinations had 19 mm zone of inhibition at the 400 mg mL-1 concentration of the ethanolic extracts. Phytochemical studies of Breynia nivosus revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycoside, protein, saponnins tannins, carbohydrate, reducing sugar and steroidal aglycone and traces of cardiac glycoside. No clinical signs of acute toxicity were observed in mice given 250-500 mg kg-1 bw of Breynia nivosus extract after 24 h. Histopathological studies of rats fed with 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 bw of Breynia nivosus showed no signs of chronic toxicity as evidenced by the liver and kidney of the rats. This study justifies the use of Breynia nivosus as chewing stick by the people of South- Eastern Nigeria.
  E.S. Amadi , O.B. Enemuo , C.J. Uneke , O.K. Nwosu , R.A. Onyeagba and O.C. Ugbogu
  The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria amongst pregnant women in Abakaliki was investigated using culture techniques. Out of the 150 subjects screened 118 (78.7%) had asymptomatic bacteriuria while 32 (21.3%) had none. Thirty (20%) of the subjects had mixed bacterial growth while 88 (58.6%) had one type of bacteria. The frequency of isolation of organism was Staphylococcus aureus (27.1%), Escherichia coli (25.4%) Klebsiella species (23.7%), Proteus species (10.2%); Streptococcus species (8.5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.1%). Pregnant women in their third trimester had the highest prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (36.4%). The age group 31-35 years had the highest prevalence with respect to age while farmers had the highest (90%) with respect to occupation. This study emphasizes the need for routine screening of the urine of pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria.
  E.S. Amadi , A. Oyeka , R.A. Onyeagba , I. Okoli and O.C. Ugbogu
  The antimicrobial effect of cold water, hot water and ethanolic extracts of Spondias mombin and Baphia nittida on cariogenic streptococci isolated from dental caries patients attending the Ebonyi State University Teaching hospital dental clinic Abakaliki was investigated using the agar well diffusion technique. The cold water and ethanolic extracts of Baphia nittida showed inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of 10 and 12 mm respectively at 400 mg mL -1, while the hot water showed no inhibitory effect. All extracts of Spondias mombin did not inhibit the test organism. The cold water and ethanolic extracts of Baphia nittida showed Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 100 and 50 mg mL -1 respectively. The combination of the cold water extracts of the two herbs showed enhanced activity of 13 mm. Phytochemical analysis of Baphia nittida revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, proteins saponins, tannins, carbohydrate and steroidal aglycone. Acute toxicity testing of Baphia nittida at a range of 250-5000 mg kg -1 bw using mice showed no clinical signs of acute toxicity. No chemical toxicity was observed amongst rats given Baphia nittida extracts 500 and 1000 mg kg -1 bw after 30 days. Baphia nittida may be a potential source of an antimicrobial agent for the treatment and management of dental caries.
  E.S. Amadi , C.A. Oyeka , I. Okoli , J.I. Ihedioha and I.R. Iroha
  The study investigated the caries inductive capacities of different sucrose concentrations and the anti-caries activity of Breynia nivosus extract in experimental albino rats. Different concentrations (70, 50, 30 and 10%) of sucrose-in-diet, were respectively fed to caries-free albino rats harboring Streptococcus rattus in their oral cavity, to determine their caries induction effect. Subsequently, 200 mg mL-1 of Breynia nivosus extract were intra-orally administered to the teeth surfaces of caries-free and non caries free rats to ascertain its possible caries curative and/or preventive effects. Direct observation, probing, microbial count and radiography were used to monitor the caries status of the rats. There were significant increase (p<0.05) in the microbial count of dental plaque of rat groups fed with 70, 50 and 30% sucrose-in-diet. However, milky white spots were only observed among the rat groups fed with 70 and 50% sucrose-in-diet at the 6th week of observation. The results of this investigation suggests that Breynia nivosus extract possesses some degree of in vivo caries preventive and curative effect on the teeth surfaces of albino rats fed simultaneously with 70% sucrose-in-diet.
  I.R. Iroha , M.U. Adikwu , E.S. Amadi , I. Aibinu and C.O. Esimone
  Clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (No. = 109) were collected from Microbiology Laboratory unit of a tertiary hospital (Ebonyi State University teaching hospital, Abakaliki, EBSUTH) and a secondary hospital (Federal Medical Center, Abakaliki, FMC) from four different clinical specimens (urine, stool, blood and sputum) between February to November 2006. Sixty-three clinical isolates of E. coli were isolated from EBSUTH while forty-six were from FMC Abakaliki. These organisms were characterized and identified to species level using standard identification technique. Sensitivity studies were carried out on the test organisms using disc diffusion method and later the organisms were characterized phenotypically for ESBL production using the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). A preliminary molecular characterization of the ESBL producing isolates were further carried out based on the evaluation of their plasmid profile via agarose gel electrophoresis. The over-all result of the study revealed that the prevalence of ESBL producing organisms was high 18 (16.5%) in our environment. The rate of occurrence varied within the two hospitals with 11 (23.9%) from FMC (urine 2 (18.2%), blood 5 (35.7%), wound 3 (30%) semen 1 (33.3%) and non was isolated from sputum while 7(11.1%) were from EBSUTH (urine 2(9.5%), blood 3 (21.4%), wound 2 (18.2%) respectively and non was isolated from sputum and semen. The plasmid profile studies revealed the presence of low molecular weight plasmid DNA within the ranges of 21.3-29.4 kb.
  A.E. Onyido , P.O. Okolo , M.O. Obiukwu and E.S. Amadi
  A survey of some refuse dumps for the presence of vectors of public health diseases was carried out in Awka Local Government Area from March to May 2008. The refuse dumps were located at Amikwo/Kenneth Dike Street, Umuogbu (off Saint Faith), Unizik temporary site Junction, Awka stadium area and Iyiagu Estate (Diamond Hostels). Water traps, Snap traps, Sweep nets and Sticky traps were used for the collection of arthropods and vertebrate vectors. Arthropods collected included members of the family Muscidae, Scorpionidae, Blattidae and the Culicidae. Rodents were also caught. Houseflies were the most abundant 62 (48.1%), followed by Cockroaches 38 (29.5%), adult mosquitoes 26 (20.2%), rodents 2 (1.6%) and scorpion 1 (0.8%). The result shows the relative abundance of the vectors of parasitic diseases such as bacterial, protozoal and viral infections in improperly disposed refuse dumps. The abundance of these vectors suggests that vector-borne diseases may be prevalent in Awka due to large numbers of un-disposed refuse dumps. Proper disposal of refuse dumps in Awka to avert possible epidemic is hereby suggested.
  E.S. Amadi , C.E. Ononiwu , N. Aballa , S.A. Oladimeji , F.A. Aneke and C.O. Aneke
  This study investigated the epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, among the patients attending the dental clinic of the Federal School of Dental Technology and Therapy, Enugu, between July and October 2008. Blood samples randomly collected from 100 patients were screened for hepatitis C virus antibody using Hepatitis C virus test strip (ACON, USA). Out of the 100 samples screened, 1% was positive. Although, HCV prevalence was low among the patients, its presence connotes the possibility of cross infection in dental settings in our environment. Consequently, strict adherence to standard precautionary measures by health and dental workers in Nigeria is hereby suggested.
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