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Articles by E.J. Akpan
Total Records ( 4 ) for E.J. Akpan
  D.O. Edem , O.U. Eka , I.B. Umoh , A.P. Udoh and E.J. Akpan
  A nutritional evaluation was carried out to determine the effects of red palm oil and refined palm olein on digestion of nutrients in animals. Four-week-old Wistar albino rats (n = 8 per group) were maintained for 28 days on standard dry rat food supplemented (10, 20 and 30% by weight) with red palm oil (RPO) and refined palm olein (REFPO). The digestion of nutrients (measured from the differences between nutrient intake and fecal nutrient) by rats fed 10% oil-supplemented diets was comparable to that of the control (p>0.01). There were inverse dose-effect relationships between the level of dietary fat and digestion of protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, manganese and copper. In comparison with other experimental groups, animals fed 30% oil diets exhibited the lowest digestion of proximate nutrients (p<0.01) and minerals (p<0.001) in addition to exhibiting the poorest feed utilization (p<0.01). In general, no significant variations were observed (among the parameters measured) between RPO-fed and REFPO-fed rats, for each level of test dietary fat (p>0.01). The above findings suggest that consumption of palm in moderate amounts may impact growth and development through effects on nutrient retention.
  H.D. Akpan , E.O. Udosen , A.A. Udofia , E.J. Akpan and A.A. Joshua
  The toxicity effect of excess palm kernel cake and the effect of phytase and zinc supplementation on palm kernel cake (PKC) toxicity in sheep were investigated. Three experimental diets A, B, and C were prepared using grass and PKC at 10% and 90% respectively. Diet A contained grass and PKC only (PKC group). Diet B was same as A but in addition was supplemented with RonozymeTM P at 750 FYT/Kg (PKC + Phytase (P) group). Diet C was also as A, but in addition, was supplemented with zinc sulphate at 500µg/g (PKC + Zn group). Another diet D, containing corn and fish meal at 20% and grass at 80% served as control. These diets were fed to twelve male West African Dwarf sheep (average weight 20.0±0.8kg) divided into 3 groups and the control. Clinical signs and body weights were monitored for 20 weeks. The animals were slaughtered and the right lobes and renal cortex were isolated for copper and Zinc estimation and histopathological evaluation. The results obtained showed that animals in the PKC + phytase group, PKC + Zinc group and the control performed alike in terms of clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions. In terms of body weight gain, animals in PKC + phytase group performed better than animals in PKC + Zinc group and the control, although the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Animals in the PKC group all died of PKC toxicity. Supplementation with zinc and phytase prevented chronic PKC toxicity and can be useful in the therapy for PKC toxicity in sheep.Supplementation with zinc however, led to significant elevation in zinc concentration in the liver and kidney. It is interesting to discover that the use of phytase did not elevate the concentration of zinc in these organs.
  I.F. Usoh , E.J. Akpan , E.O. Etim and E.O. Farombi
  The antioxidant actions of 80% ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vitamin C (VITC), were examined using a model of sodium arsenite (SA) - induced oxidative stress in rats. The oral administration of the extracts (200 and 300mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) decreased by 37% SA - induced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in liver, suggesting the role of the extract in protection against pro-oxidant induced membrane damage. Pretreatment with the extracts prior to the intra-peritoneal administration of 10mg/kg body weight of SA reduced significantly (by 86%) and induced non-significantly (by 37%) the level of GSH depletion and GST activity respectively in a dose - dependent manner. The extract also attenuated SA - induced reduction in the serum level of VITC as evidenced by a significant (P<0.05) dose - dependent increase (by 60%) in serum VITC level. Pretreatment with the extracts showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in liver and decrease in whole blood activities of SOD (by 369% and 85%) and CAT (by 829% and 58%) respectively, hence revealing the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts. Furthermore, the extracts, evaluated (in vitro) by their capacity of quenching 1, 1-diphenyl - 2-picrylhydraxyl (DPPH) free radical, showed strong scavenging effects on DPPH free radical at concentration of 0.20mg/ml (1C50 = 0.20mg/ml). The extracts at low and high concentrations showed no inhibitory effect on nitric oxide radical. These findings are suggestive of the possible chemopreventive and antioxidative role played by dried flower extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
  B.S. Antia , E.J. Akpan , P.A. Okon and I.U. Umoren
  Levels of some nutrients and antinutrients of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), leaves were determined using standard analytical methods. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, moisture contents and calorific values were 24.85%, 4.90%, 7.20%, 11.10%, 51.95%, 82.21% and 351.30 kcal respectively. The vitamin compositionwas found to be at the levels of 0.672 mg/100g for vitamin A and 15.20 mg/100g for vitamin C. The elemental analysis of the leaves in mg/100g Dry matter (DM) indicated that the leaves contained appreciable levels of zinc (0.08), potassium (4.05), sodium (4.23), manganese (4.64), calcium (28.44), magnesium (340.00) and iron (16.00). The antinutrient composition for phytic acid, cyanide, tannins and total oxalate were 1.44 ± 0.01, 30.24 ± 0.02, 0.21 ± 0.02 and 308.00 ± 1.04 mg/100g respectively. These results reveal that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, vitamins and mineral elements and low levels of toxicants and should be included in diets to supplement our daily allowance needed by the body.
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