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Articles by E.I. Akubugwo
Total Records ( 4 ) for E.I. Akubugwo
  N.A. Obasi , E.I. Akubugwo , O.C. Ugbogu and Glory Otuchristian
  Physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, %moisture, CEC, TOC, TOM, total nitrogen, %PO43¯, SO42¯) and the chemical fractionation, mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ni and Cr) in refuse waste soils of some dumpsites along Enugu-port Harcourt Expressways, South-East, Nigeria were investigated and compared with control soils from the same terrain using standard analytical methods. Results showed significant (p>0.05) higher changes in the soil physico-chemical properties relative to the controls, thus implicating the waste soils to be more fertile. Also, mean of total extractable metals in the samples analyzed for Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ni and Cr ranged from 23.41-107.18, 10.58-238.50, 141.21-442.03, 35.11-635.31, 186.38-505.57, 76.46-371.73, 13.00-221.97 and 13.55-26.77 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Cd followed by Fe and then Pb were mostly found to be in the mobile phase of the samples indicating that the metals were potentially more bio-available to the environment than the other metals studied. Overall, the order of mobility and bioavailability of the metals is Cd>Fe>Pb>Mn>Zn>Cr>Ni>Cu. The implications of these results towards the understanding of the underlying causes of plants species diversity changes and growth, bioaccumulation and bio-toxicity of some edible plants on dumpsites were discussed.
  K.N. Agbafor , C. Ezeali and E.I. Akubugwo
  Extracts of various parts of Newbouldia laevis are used traditionally in Eastern Nigeria in management and treatment of several diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study investigated anticonvulsant and analgesic potentials of leaf and root extracts. The extracts were prepared with deionized water and ethylacetate. Extracts doses of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg–1 b.wt. were used for the investigations. Anticonvulsant potential of the extracts against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion was tested in albino rats, by measuring time for convulsion onset, duration of convulsion and plasma glucose and Ca2+ levels before, during and after convulsion, using diazepam as standard. The hot plate method was used to investigate the analgesic property of the extracts using morphine sulphate as standard. Pretreatment of the animals with different doses of the extracts delayed the onset of convulsion in a dose-dependent manner. Convulsion was not observed in 800 mg kg–1 b.wt. of Deionized Water Leaf (DWL) extract and in diazepam pretreated groups. The extracts decreased significantly (p<0.05) the severity of convulsion and prolonged the duration of convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole. The plasma concentration of glucose and Ca2+ decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the test groups through the course of convulsion, while they did not change significantly (p>0.05) in the non-convulsed groups. All the extracts at all doses and 4 mg kg–1 of morphine sulphate (an analgesic) showed a significant (p<0.05) percentage inhibition against hot plate induced pain. The difference between the analgesic potentials of 800 mg kg–1 of DWL extract and 4 mg kg–1 morphine sulphate was not significant (p>0.05). These findings indicate that the extracts may be effective in management/treatment of convulsion and pains.
  N.A. Obasi , Joy Ukadilonu , Eberechukwu Eze , E.I. Akubugwo and U.C. Okorie
  Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30°C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g-1 and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g-1, Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g-1, Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g-1 of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg-1 for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p≤0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils.
  K.N. Agbafor , E.I. Akubugwo , M.E. Ogbashi , P.M. Ajah and C.C. Ukwandu
  This research was designed to evaluate the chemical (phytochemical, vitamin and mineral) and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) properties of leaves of Zapoteca portoricensis. Four extracts were prepared with deionized water, methanol, ethylacetate and diethylether. Phytochemical and vitamin analyses were performed according to standard methods while mineral content was measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Agar disc diffusion method was used for antimicrobial study. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids and anthraquinones which were present in the extracts, varied significantly (p<0.05) among the extracts. The level of Vitamins B2, B6, C, E and niacin, found in all the extracts did not show any significant difference (p>0.05), except B6 and C. The values for B6 and C in water extract were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in ethylacetate and diethylether extracts. All the extracts contained Na, Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn and Fe, whose values did not vary significantly (p>0.05) in the extracts. The extracts inhibited all the microorganisms tested in a concentration dependent pattern, the water extract being significantly higher (p<0.05) than organic extracts. These results may be useful in explaining the medicinal applications of leaves of Zapoteca portoricensis.
 
 
 
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