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Articles by E.F. Dzomba
Total Records ( 2 ) for E.F. Dzomba
  K.T. Ncube , P.J. Jooste , P. Soma , E.F. Dzomba and F.C. Muchadeyi
  The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a cluster of 19 genes spanning 92 kb on chromosome 16 and plays an important role in immune response. It is highly polymorphic and has been used to study adaptive genetic diversity in chickens. LEI0258 micro satellite marker that is on the BF region of the MHC and was used to investigate adaptive genetic diversity and population structures of village chickens from South Africa (n = 77), Zimbabwe (n = 60) and Malawi (n = 30). These village chickens are raised under scavenging production systems that are characterized by frequent exposure to diseases pathogens as well as fluctuations in feed supplies. The number of alleles, allele frequency and heterozygosity levels were used to measure diversity within populations whilst the Wright’s fixation indices were used to analyze the level of population sub-structuring. A total of 22 alleles ranging from 188-448 bp were observed. Number of alleles averaged 12 per population. Allele frequency ranged from 1.6-37.5% and HO averaged 0.5. Wright’s F statistics indicated high level of within population variability and absence of population sub-structuring amongst the South African, Malawian and Zimbabwean chickens. It was therefore concluded that LEI0258 is highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for Southern African village chicken populations.
  S.G. Zulu , F.C. Muchadeyi and E.F. Dzomba
  The term village chicken best describes the scavenging chickens because of the effect of the village socio-economic and biophysical environment on the production and health status of the chicken. These chickens are predominantly farmed in African villages by small holder farmers. The purpose of this study was to compare rates and levels of inbreeding in village (free range) chickens in Southern Africa. In addition the study sought to investigate the major economic traits that could be negatively affected by inbreeding. The study was carried out in 2007 and 2009 by sampling households in five agro-ecological zones (AEZ) in Zimbabwe and three farming regions in South Africa. Data was captured in the form of surveys conducted using pre-tested questionnaires and included farmer socio-demographic information and household chicken flock sizes and composition. Data was also captured on traits that chicken farmers target when selecting or culling the flocks by ranking traits in order of importance, one being most important and eight being the least important. Three parameters i.e. effective population size (Ne), rate of inbreeding (ΔF) and the level of inbreeding (F) were estimated using different mathematical formulas. Statistical analysis of the effect of agro-ecological zone and country on each of the three parameters was done using Generalized Linear Models procedure in SAS. Results showed that Limpopo province of South Africa and AEZ III of Zimbabwe had highest and lowest Ne, respectively. Consequently, Limpopo and AEZ III had the lowest and the highest ΔF respectively. Both effective population size and rate of inbreeding varied significantly (p<0.05) between farming regions/agro ecological zones within countries. It was observed that chicken body size, reproductive performance, mothering ability and health were ranked high while body conformation and morphological traits (plumage color and comb shape) were ranked the least important traits for choosing animals for breeding and for culling chickens from the flock.
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