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Articles by E.E.J. Iweala
Total Records ( 7 ) for E.E.J. Iweala
  E.E.J. Iweala and A.G. Okedoyin
  Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been extensively used in experimental models to demonstrate its hepatotoxic potential. Humans are often exposed to it where it is used in petrol additives, refrigerants, catalyst in polymer formation and in pesticides. In this study, the effect of leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. in CCl4-induced liver damage in male wistar rats was assessed using alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) and White Blood Cell (WBC) as well as histological assay. Thirty five male wistar rats distributed into seven groups of five rats each were used in this study. The 1 mL kg-1 body weight of CCl4 was administered orally thrice in a week to hepatotoxic groups. Animals in all the groups were either fed control diet or C. olitorius-supplemented diets (COSD). It was observed from the result of this study that exposure to CCl4 and Corchorus olitorius L., produced a significant increase (p<0.05) in ALP activity and plasma total protein in some groups, no significant change (p>0.05) in AST, ALP and SOD activities and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in GST and catalase activities in the non-hepatotoxic groups while GSH increased significantly in all the groups. PCV, Hb and WBC count were not significantly different (p>0.05) and microscopic examination showed severe histological damage in hepatotoxic groups fed with C. olitorius-supplemented diet. These observations indicate that regular consumption of unprocessed C. olitorius L., may further enhance the hepatotoxic potential of CCl4 in humans.
  E.E.J. Iweala and O. Obidoa
  This study investigated changes in some biochemical and histological parameters in male rats fed with an Ocimum gratissimum-supplemented diet for six months. Biochemical parameters studied include serum protein, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, haemoglobin and white blood cells. The histological characteristics of tissue sections of liver, intestines and testes were also examined. The weight of the animals increased significantly (p<0.05) over the control. There were also significant reductions (p<0.05) in serum protein, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin in the animals. Superoxide dismutase was also significantly increased (p<0.05) while the changes in glutathione-S-transferase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were not significant. White blood cell count was significantly increased (p<0.05). Histological changes in the intestines revealed the presence of increased villi and larger globlet cells. The testes also showed increased number of sperm cells and spermatogonia while there were no visible changes in the histology of the liver.
  Omolola E. Omotosho , A.C. Omonhinmin , S.O. Rotimi , E.E.J. Iweala , O.A. Rotimi and Ayoade Femi
  The aim of this study is to partially purify and characterize the cellulase extracted from the snail haemolymph of the African giant land snail of the species, Archachatina marginata. The protein concentration of the haemolymph was found to be 168 mg mL–1 and the specific activity of the crude cellulase was found to be 0.007 U mg–1 protein using Carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) as the substrate. The partial purification on Sephadex G-200 produced two activity peaks. The molecular weights of the two cellulase fractions were estimated to be 112,202 and 67,000. The Michealis Menten constant (km) for cellulase was 4.3 and 2.8 mg mL–1 for the higher and lower molecular weight fractions, respectively. The multiplicity of cellulase complexes indicated that the haemolymph of A. marginata may convert derived cellulose in foodstuffs such as garlic, mushrooms and domestic wastes into sources of fuel. It is suggested that the enzyme can be used to produce value-added products, such as ethanol, citric acid, amino acids and vitamins including primary metabolites from cellulosic wastes.
  O.E. Omotosho , G. Oboh and E.E.J. Iweala
  Wara, a Nigerian soft cheese, was produced from cow milk using different crude coagulants obtained from (1) the juice of Calotropis procera, (2) an aqueous solution of calcium chloride, (3) an aqueous solution of alum and (4) steep waste water from pap production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these coagulants on the yield, proximate analysis, mineral composition, energy content, in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility and sensory evaluation of Wara. The result revealed no significant difference (p≤0.05) in the yield of the cheese (31.5-32.5%) from the different coagulants. The protein (25.56%), Mn (0.23), Zn (1.9) of Calotropis procera coagulated cheese was significantly higher (p≤0.05) than that of other coagulants. However, it had the least value in energy (6.5 cal g-1), K (26.04), Ca (22.5) and Na (16.98). The steep water coagulated cheese gave a significantly higher (p≤0.05) fat (21.9%), Fe (1.7), Mg (54.3), K(56.5), Ca(43.6), Na (45.2), energy (8.1 cal g-1) and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (86.3-92.6%) than the cheese produced by other coagulants. Calcium chloride coagulated cheese had the lowest content of protein (17.85%), Fe (0.993), Zn (0.785) and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (80.7-83.6%). Alum coagulated cheese had a high content of protein (23.64%), Fe (1.583), Ca (36.9) and Na (31.4). The results obtained from sensory evaluation showed that Calotropis procera coagulated cheese gave the best coagulum. The locally used coagulant in Nigeria for cheese production, steep waste water, appears to be promising because of its high content of minerals, though the sensory quality could be improved.
  E.E.J. Iweala , I.C. Obichi and O.E. Omotosho
  Some biochemical and histological effects of consumption of Musa paradisiaca-supplemented diet in hepatotoxic rats were investigated. Twenty-four rats were divided into four hepatotoxic and non-hepatotoxic groups and fed a Musa paradisiaca-supplemented diet. The parameters measured included alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total protein, glucose, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation and packed cell volume. Histological changes in tissue sections of liver and testes were also examined. The results obtained showed that alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase did not significantly change except in the hepatotoxic control group which showed an increase in aspartate transaminase. Cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the hepatotoxic group fed Musa paradisiaca-supplemented diet. Protein and reduced glutathione levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in non-hepatotoxic rats fed Musa paradisiaca-supplemented. Lipid peroxidation, glucose and PCV levels were not significantly altered in all the groups. The consumption of a Musa paradisiaca-supplemented diet did not significantly change the weight of the animals. Histological observations of tissue sections of liver showed necrosis in the hepatotoxic rats and varying regeneration in the groups fed Musa paradisiaca-supplemented diet while there were no changes in the histology of the testes in all the groups.
  E.E.J. Iweala , S.N. Chinedu , I.S. Afolabi , O.O. Ogunlana , D.E. Azuh , V.C. Osamor and T.A. Toogun
  Body Mass Index (BMI) and Random Blood Glucose (RBG) are considered important predisposing factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. This study assessed the propensity to become diabetic based on the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Random Blood Glucose (RBG), gender and age in a community in South west Nigeria. The study included a convenient sample size of 140 healthy adult individuals who met the inclusion criteria. Anthropometric indices including height and weight were measured and Blood samples analyzed for random blood glucose. A significant positive correlation was observed (r = +0.32) between BMI and RBG in females while there was no correlation in the males (r = -0.05). The males were found to be less likely to be diabetic than the females. The relationship between age and RBG was significantly positive in both males and females. The study confirms the hypothesis that a positive correlation exist between BMI and RBG but only in women. This suggests that other causes including sex could predispose to diabetes and reiterates the diabetogenic effect of adiposity.
  E.E.J. Iweala , J.A.O. Olugbuyiro , B.M. Durodola , D.R. Fubara-Manuel and A.O. Okoli
  Food consumed in Ota, Nigeria are prone to contamination with environmental metal pollutants. The concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) were determined in some commonly consumed foods and drinks using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Samples selected included fried yam, fried bean cake (akara), roasted plantain (bole), roasted meat (suya), roasted fish, cassava flour (fufu), yam flour (amala), garri (eba), beans and herbal drink (agbo jedi jedi). Lead was present only in roasted meat (0.02±0.02 mg kg-1), garri (0.04±0.06 mg kg-1) and roasted plantain (0.004±0.01 mg kg-1). Copper and cadmium ranged from 0.02±0.19-3.55±0.20 and 0.02±0.01-0.59±0.17 mg kg-1, respectively. The mean concentration of zinc and nickel ranged from 0.09±0.10-1.19±1.52 and 0.04±0.01-6.38±7.61 mg kg-1, respectively. The mean concentration of manganese ranged from 0.06±0.05-0.25±0.19 mg kg-1. Manganese was absent in agbo jedi jedi (ethanolic). Some of the foods including roasted plantain (bole), roasted meat (suya), roasted fish, cassava flour (fufu), yam flour (amala) and beans were contaminated with nickel above FAO/WHO tolerable limits. Agbo jedi jedi was found to be contaminated with cadmium, nickel and copper above safety levels. Mercury was present only in roasted plantain at a level of 0.91±1.28 mg kg-1 which was beyond tolerable limits. This study indicates that consumers of the foods and drinks with high levels of metal contamination may be exposed to health risks associated with their presence.
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