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Articles by E.E. Ekerette
Total Records ( 7 ) for E.E. Ekerette
  O.M. Etukudo , B. Okon and E.E. Ekerette
  Two hundred snails of various sizes consisting of hundred each of the black-skinned ectotype and white-skinned ectotype were used for this study. Body components measured were body weight, body shell length, body shell width, mouth shell length and mouth shell width for the two ectotypes. The number of whorls on snail shell considered for the study were 2, 3, 4 and 5. Data were analyzed using t-test and the results showed that all the body components between the two ectotypes were significantly different (p<0.05) based on the number of whorls. The white-skinned ectotype recorded higher percent body component increment for snails between 2 and 3 whorls, whereas the black-skinned snails recorded higher percent body component increment for snails with 3 and 4 whorls. This means that the two ectotypes besides their differences in foot colouration varied in terms of growth of body components. It is therefore suggested that both ectotypes of Archachatina marginata S.) should be tested for differentiation in growth of body components with higher number of whorls, as this will be very beneficial to breeders for genetic improvement of the snail.
  E.V. Ikpeme , U.B. Ekaluo , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette and M. Pius
  This study was aimed at assessing the reproductive activities of male albino rats treated with crude leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis. The total of thirty sexually matured male albino rats of about eleven weeks, weighing between 120-180 g were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) with 6 rats in each group. Rats in group A served as the control and were fed with normal commercial feed only; groups B, C, D and E received 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg kg-1 Body Weight (BW) of the test substance, respectively. The results of the phytochemistry showed high content of phytates (49.27%) and other bioactive compounds in the leaf extracts. Results on the sperm parameters revealed significant reduction (p<0.05) in the sperm count, viability and motility. Sperm head abnormalities were also significant in the different groups with the highest recorded at 600 mg kg-1 BW (8.75%). Although, there were no significant difference in the epididymides weight of rats in the different groups, the testes weight was significantly reduced (p<0.05). From the present results, there is a dire need to always apply caution on the use of B. spectabilis in combating diseases considering the possible adverse effects that it could pose on spermatogenic pathways.
  O.M. Etukudo , O. BIna-ibor and E.E. Ekerette
  The comparative study of egg quality traits of black-skinned and white-skinned ectotypes of snails (Archachatina marginata) based on four whorls were studied using sixty adult snails. The snails were managed in captivity for three months using hutches, embedded with steriled, loamy soil to generate eggs for the study. Egg quality traits evaluated include number of eggs laid, egg weight, length and width. The snails were divided into two mating groups, black-skinned x black-skinned and white-skinned x white-skinned ectotypes of snails. Data collected were subjected to t-test. Results showed that the black-skinned ectotype laid 112 eggs from 13 clutches, while the white-skinned ectotype laid 98 eggs from 11 clutches. The results of the egg quality traits analyzed showed high significant differences (p<0.05) between the two ectotypes of snails based on four whorls. The results of the phenotypic correlation of the egg quality traits also revealed a highly significant (p<0.001) mean number of egg, mean egg weight, length and width between the two ectotypes of snails. The highly and positive correlation between the egg quality traits could suggest that there are direct relationships between the traits and selection for one trait leads to improvement of the other trait. It is recommended that snails with 5, 6 and 7 whorls should be used for analysis of egg quality traits since the number of whorls are yet to be used as a standard for estimating the age of snails.
  M.E. Kooffreh , E.V. Ikpeme , E.E. Ekerette and N.O. Eyo
  Morphological and behavioral genetic traits of simple inheritance indicate ethnic variation and have been widely employed in population variation studies. Five selected genetic traits of simple inheritance, ABO and Rh (D) blood phenotype was investigated to establish the inheritance pattern, prevalence and to assess association between the traits, ABO rhesus phenotypes and gender of 45 unrelated families living in Calabar. Blood group O was the most prevalent (55.2%) followed by B (21.6%), A (18.8%) while the least was AB (4.4%). The majorities (91.6%) were Rh (D) positive and 8.4% were Rh (D) negative. The frequency of the 5 genetic traits were earlobe (69.2% free earlobe, 30.8% attached earlobe), hand-clasping (51.6% right hand-claspers, 48.4% left hand-claspers), dimples (21.2% had facial dimples, 78.8% had no dimples), mid-digital hair (presence in 92%, absence in 8%) and tongue rolling (48.4% rollers, 51.6% non-roller). There was association between earlobe and blood group, sex and hand clasping, sex and facial dimples and between tongue rolling and sex. Chi-square analysis of the inheritance pattern of these genetic traits provides strong evidence for a familial and probably a genetic component in the control of these traits. The pattern also showed that the traits are inherited in dominance versus recessive manner.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette , S.O. Usen and S.F. Usoroh
  The current research was aimed at comparing the leaf extracts of two medicinal plants (Moringa oleifera and Azadiracta indica) for antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials in different extracting solvents (absolute ethanol, 70 and 50% ethanol). Different in vitro assays such as total phenolic and flavonoid content, 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating activity, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were employed in the study. The results revealed that A. indica contained more phenols and flavonoids than M. oleifera with the different extracting solvents. The amount of phenols and flavonoids in A. indica played a pivotal role in scavenging more of the DPPH radical at a lower inhibitory concentration, IC50 of 77.94 μg mL-1 than in M. oleifera at 118.96 μg mL-1 in absolute ethanol. Moringa oleifera was a better scavenger of the DPPH radical in 70 and 50% ethanol. In absolute ethanol, A. indica also chelated 50% of the metal ion at IC50 of 0.22 μg mL-1 which was even better than ascorbic acid (5.95 μg mL-1) and gallic acid (0.503 μg mL-1) standards. The values for A. indica were also comparably better than those of M. oleifera for reducing power and total antioxidant capacity at the respective concentrations. The results are indicative of the antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials of M. oleifera and A. indica. Comparatively, A. indica was better than M. oleifera in doing the job and absolute ethanol extracts were better than 70 and 50% ethanol extracts in the scavenging potential.
  U.B. Ekaluo , E.V. Ikpeme , E.E. Ekerette and C.I. Chukwu
  This study was aimed at assessing antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) and guava (Psidium guajava) leaf in different extracting solvents (absolute ethanol, 70% ethanol and 50% ethanol) via in vitro assays including; Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), DPPH radical scavenging, metal chelating activity, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. The results obtained indicated that both medicinal plants are antioxidant reservoir. The TPC and TFC of P. guajava was more in all the extracting solvents compared to V. amygdalina. The Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) of P. guajava for DPPH radical scavenging were; absolute ethanol (1.564 μg mL-1), 70% ethanol (1.723 μg mL-1), 50% ethanol (4.102 μg mL-1) while V. amygdalina were; absolute ethanol (33.18 μg mL-1), 70% ethanol (56.21 μg mL-1), 50% ethanol (73.46 μg mL-1). Both DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating activities of the two medicinal plants were dependent on the amount of phenols and flavonoids in the extract. The absorbance values for both reducing power and total antioxidant capacity of the two extracts also indicated their antioxidant potentials. Thus, the results obtained from the current study are indications of the possible use of the two plants in combating free radical related diseases often orchestrated by oxidative stress conditions, especially P. guajava since it showed more antioxidant activities than V. amygdalina following the in vitro results.
  E.V. Ikpeme , O.U. Udensi , E.E. Ekerette and U.H. Okon
  Aspartame (ASP) consumption has been reported to implicate oxidative stress and antioxidant supplements from plant origin are one of the safest ways of averting their effect in the body. The current study was aimed at ascertaining the ability of aspartame (ASP) to induce oxidative stress in rats as well as assessing the potential of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds extracts in averting the aspartame induced oxidative stress. This was done using sperm parameters and biochemical assays such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, melonaldehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphate (ALP). Forty eight sexually matured male albino rats were divided into six groups (A-F) with eight rats in each group. Group A served as the positive control and received physiological saline. Group B served as the negative control and were administered with 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of aspartame (ASP). Rats in group C were administered with 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+500 mg kg–1 b.wt., of ginger extracts while rats in group D were administered with 1000 ASP+1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of ginger extracts. On the other hand, rats in group E received 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+500 mg kg–1 b.wt., of watermelon seed extracts while rats in group F received 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., ASP+1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., of watermelon seed extracts. The result revealed that administration of ASP reduced sperm viability, sperm count and increased sperm head abnormalities significantly (p<0.05) while sperm motility was not affected by ASP administration in the rats. Superoxide dismutase and GPx levels were increased significantly by ginger and watermelon seeds extracts. Although ginger extract reduced more of lipid peroxidation (MDA), watermelon seeds extract increased the activities of SOD, GPx and reduced AST, ALT and ALP in the liver of rats at 1000 mg kg–1 b.wt., than the extract of ginger. Thus, the extracts of these two medicinal plants are possible antioxidant reservoir and may provide reliable solution in averting oxidative stress pathologies.
 
 
 
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