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Articles by E.B. Oyewo
Total Records ( 4 ) for E.B. Oyewo
  E.B. Oyewo , A. Adetutu , J.A. Adebisi , O.S. Olorunnisola and A.A. Adesokan
  Febi super bitters is one the most reported herbal products consumed as blood cleansers, detoxifier, regulator of blood sugar and body weight, pain reliever, immunomodulator etc in the southwest region of Nigeria. Thus, the immunomodulatory activity of the sub-chronic oral administration of Febi Super Bitters was assessed in male Wistar rats. Eighteen rats were randomly picked into three equal groups with an average body weight of 86.2±4.43 g. The rats were acclimatized for 14 days, after which 0.308 and 0.462 mL kg-1 body weight of Febi Super Bitters were administered daily to groups B and C respectively for 56 days, while group A received distilled water. Immunomodulatory activities were evaluated by the feed intake, body weight, blood glucose, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and uric acid, liver reduced glutathione and malodialdehyde. The feed intake, the body weight and the blood glucose concentrations were markedly reduced (p<0.05) dose dependently. Serum concentrations of IL-2 were unchanged (p>0.05), but IL-6 and TNF-α were altered significantly (p<0.05). Significant decreases were recorded in the erythrocyte parameters and serum lipids, except in high density lipoprotein- and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Leukocytes, platelets and uric acid levels were increased (p<0.05). The sub-chronic use of Febi super bitters indicated the induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that possibly stimulated the immunoactivities. From the foregoing, the alleged daily consumption of Febi super bitters as blood tonic or immunomodulatory agent is not recommended.
  P.B. Fakunle , A.J. Ajibade , E.B. Oyewo , O.A. Alamu and A.K. Daramola
  Hippocampal formation is involved in learning and memory and has also been reported to be sensitive to neurotoxic insults. However, little has been reported on the chronic simultaneous intake of ethanol and acetaminophen despite their degrees of abuse and misuse as regards hippocampus. In this study, forty adult wistar rats of average weight 150±20.2 g were randomly distributed into four groups of treatments T1, T2, T3 and control C (N = 10). For a period of six weeks, animals in group T1 received 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. acetaminophen and 25% ethanol in 2% sucrose solution while group T2 animals received 25% ethanol in 2% sucrose solution. T3 animals were given 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. acetaminophen and group C animals were given only distilled water. The animals were sacrificed by whole body intracardiac perfusion fixation and the regions of hippocampus were dissected out using Paxinos stereotaxic coordinate method. Brain specimens were processed for routine histological techniques, sectioned at 6 μ and stained for nissl’s substance. Significantly reduced neuronal density (p>0.05) of 44 and 38% neuronal loss in CA3 subfield, respectively in treatment groups T1 and T2 compared to control group was recorded. Also, marked degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the regions of CA1 and CA3 of treatment groups that received 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. acetaminophen and 25% ethanol in 2% sucrose solution as well as animals that received 25% ethanol in 2% sucrose solution, respectively with mild degenerative effects in the group that took 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. acetaminophen compared to the control group was also observed. These alterations observed following exposure to chronic simultaneous administration of ethanol and acetaminophen point to possibilities of higher memory impairments and learning deficits which are of very strong public health concern.
  E.B. Oyewo , A. Adetutu , A.A. Adesokan and P.B. Fakunle
  This study investigated the toxic implication of Febi Super Bitters in Male Wistar rats because of upsurge in its usage for therapeutic reasons. Eighteen rats, with an average weight of 86. 2±4.43 g, were randomly distributed into three equal groups of six rats per group. The rats were acclimatized for 14 days and 0.308 and 0.462 mL kg-1 b.wt. of Febi super bitters were administered daily to groups B and C, respectively for 56 days, while group A received distilled water. The toxicity of the herbal bitter was assessed by determining the activities of Lactate Dehydrogenate (LDH), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Acid Phosphatase (ACP) in the liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, brain, lungs, spleen, serum and histological studies on the organs. The activities of LDH were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the liver, small intestine and lung, while it increased significantly (p<0.05) in the brain and serum. ALP activities decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the liver, kidney, small intestine and heart but increased (p<0.05) in brain, spleen and serum. ACP activities in the liver and kidney were decreased (p<0.05) and increased significantly (p<0.05) in the spleen and serum. Increases were significantly recorded in serum total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, total protein and globulin, while reductions were recorded in the conjugated bilirubin and A/G (p<0.05). Histoarchitecture of the lungs, spleen and small intestine revealed marked cellular distortions. In the light of these findings, the habitual consumption of Febi super bitters is not recommended as it has underlined toxicity in some vital internal organs.
  E.B. Oyewo , A. Adetutu and J.A. Adebisi
  This study investigated the immunomodulatory capabilities of the sub-chronic administration of Yoyo bitters in male Wistar rats. Eighteen rats weighing 86.2±4.43 g were randomly picked into three equal groups. The rats were acclimatized for 14 days, after which 0.308 and 0.462 mL kg-1 b.wt. of Yoyo bitters were administered once daily to groups B and C respectively for 56 days, while group A received distilled water. The feed intake, body weight, blood glucose, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and uric acid, liver reduced glutathione and malodialdehyde were determined. The feed intake, body weight and blood glucose concentrations were reduced (p<0.05) at the doses. No changes were recorded in the concentration of serum IL-2 (p>0.05), but IL-6 decreased (p<0.05) in group B and increased (p<0.05) in group C, while TNF-α were increased (p<0.05) dose dependent. The haematological parameters were decreased at all the doses (p<0.05), except the ESR, WBC and lymphocytes that were increased (p<0.05) and platelets in group C (p<0.05). The serum total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-C and atherogenic index were decreased (p<0.05) and HDL-C increased (p<0.05) in group B only. Serum uric acid was reduced (p<0.05) in group B, but increased in group C with the concentration of liver MDA (p<0.05). The study, therefore, established that a dose lower than the manufacturer’s recommended dose presented the desired immunomodulatory activities and the habitual use of Yoyo bitters at the adult recommended dose calls for caution.
 
 
 
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