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Articles by E.A. Saleh
Total Records ( 3 ) for E.A. Saleh
  E.A. Saleh , S.E. Watkins , A.L. Waldroup and P.W. Waldroup
  Two trials of identical design were conducted in floor pens to characterize the response of male broilers grown to heavy weights for further processing to dietary nutrient density levels. Nutrient density is defined as the metabolizable energy content of the diet with all essential nutrients maintained in proportion. Ten treatments were utilized with varying nutrient densities obtained by adding poultry oil from 0 to 9% in increments of 1%. Crude protein, amino acids, and other essential nutrients were maintained in proportion to dietary energy levels. Body weights, feed consumed and processing quality were obtained at different intervals up to 63 days of age. Body weight peaked with the diet containing 6% added fat (3267 ME Kcal/ kg, mean of starter, grower, and finisher ME values). Feed intake tended to decrease with increasing nutrient density, but not at a rate commensurate with the change in energy levels. Feed conversion (g gain per g feed) improved as dietary nutrient density increased. Dressing percentage tended to decrease as dietary nutrient density level increased. Abdominal fat and breast meat, both on an absolute weight or percentage of carcass weight basis, remained rather constant when protein was maintained in proportion to energy.
  E.A. Saleh , S.E. Watkins , A.L. Waldroup and P.W. Waldroup
  Three trials with identical experimental design were conducted to examine the effects of dietary nutrient density and energy feeding programs on male broiler chickens grown to heavy weights for further processing. Diets were formulated to provide a minimum of 107.5% of NRC (1994) amino acid requirements, maintained in proportion to dietary energy levels. Diets with different nutrient density were obtained by adding 0, 3, and 6% poultry oil (PO) while maintaining essential nutrients in a constant balance with energy. Diets within each age period (0 to 21 days, 21 to 42 days, and 42 to 63 days) had similar ratios of metabolizable energy to crude protein. Six feeding programs were obtained by either feeding these three levels of PO continuously to 63 d or by increasing the amount of PO in the diet at 21 d. Live performance was examined at 14, 21, 42, and 63 d and carcass composition was examined at 63 d. Dietary energy levels or feeding programs had no significant effect on body weight except at 42 d, which improved as PO was added to the diet. Feed intake was not significantly affected by feeding various levels of poultry oil or by utilizing different feeding programs. However, feed conversion at all ages showed a significant improvement as the level of supplemental PO increased. Calorie conversion was not affected at 14, 21, and 42 d. At 63 d, calorie conversion was significantly reduced when birds received diets with increased supplemental PO. Neither supplemental PO or feeding program affected the dressing percentage or yield of economically important carcass components at 63 d when examined on an absolute basis or as percentage of carcass weight. Abdominal fat content was not significantly influenced by level of supplemental poultry oil.
  E.A. Saleh , S.E. Watkins , A.L. Waldroup and P.W. Waldroup
  Six feeding programs for broilers based on level and time of feeding poultry oil (PO) were compared as well as early feed restriction. All diets were formulated to contain a minimum of 107.5% of NRC (1994) amino acid recommendations, maintained in proportion to dietary energy level. Three different energy levels within each age period were obtained by adding 0, 3, and 6% PO and formulating for optimum nutrient density. Diets within each age period (starter, 0 to 21 days; grower, 21 to 42 days; and finisher, 42 to 84 days) had similar calorie:protein ratios. During the restriction period of 7 to 14 d, the birds were given an amount of their respective diets calculated to provide daily maintenance energy requirements. Before and after the restriction period, the birds were offered feed for ad libitum consumption. Body weight, feed consumption, and processing quality were obtained at 63, 70, 77, and 84 d of age. In general, body weight and feed conversion were improved as PO was added to the diet; however, the response was not always significant. Mortality, dressing percentage, abdominal fat, breast, leg, and wing yield did not differ significantly as various levels of PO were fed. In the few instances where there was a significant difference, it did not follow any specific trend among the dietary treatments. There was a significant decrease in the ability to utilize energy by birds grown to 63, 70, 77, or 84 d as the level of PO increased. Feed restriction reduced body weight at 63, 70, and 77 d of age. However, feed conversion was significantly improved and mortality significantly reduced at all ages as compared to birds fed ad libitum. Feed restriction had little impact on abdominal fat. No interaction was observed between PO levels and feed restriction.
 
 
 
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