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Articles by E.A. Akinrinde
Total Records ( 8 ) for E.A. Akinrinde
  S.S. Ajayi , E.A. Akinrinde and R. Asiedu
  Fertilization is crucial to crop productivity sustenance under continuous land-use, but crop response could vary widely in different agro-ecologies. Effectiveness of sole and combined organic fertilizer- O.F, 0.6% N; crystallizer- 8.83% P; muriate of potash- MOP- 49.8% K; triple superphosphate- TSP- 19.22% P and urea- 45% N (replicated thrice in randomized complete block design) for yam (Dioscorea rotundata i.e., TDr-99-6 and Dioscorea alata i.e., TDa-98/01176) performance were evaluated on Typic paleudalf (at Ibadan, Rainforest) and Arsenic haplustalf (at Abuja, Guinea Savanna) in Nigeria. Short-term and residual-effect differences in TDr-99-6 tuber yields were insignificant (p<0.05) while highest TDa-98/01176 yield (40.21 t ha-1) was obtained with urea at Ibadan. Residual effects of O.F+TSP enabled TDa-98/01176 to produce the highest yield (27.97 t ha-1) at Abuja. TDa-98/01176 out-yielded TDr-99-6 but with dry-matter contents being more dependent on fertilizer treatment. The hypothesis that O.F effects could improve with increased application rates needs to be tested.
  O.O. Aina , A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Akinrinde
  Genetic variability in shoot and root characteristics among 20 broad-based cassava genotypes was studied in four agroecological zones in Nigeria to determine its effects on root yield. Seventeen agronomic parameters were evaluated on a plot size of 40 m2, at spacing of 1x1 m in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replicates. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences (p< 0.001) among genotypes within and across locations for most parameters. Significant genotype by environment (GxE) interaction effects was also observed. Estimates of genetic variances for phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were higher for root characters than for shoot characters. PCV ranged from 4.3 to 36.5%; GCV ranged from 3.2 to 22.6%. Broad sense heritability (H2) estimates were high for root characters, ranging from 75 to 88.6%, but low for shoot characters, ranging between 10.6 and 38%. Consequently, considerable scope exists for the improvement of economic traits, such as storage root yield. Shoot traits have little control on storage root yield while root traits with high genetic influence had major control on storage root yield. Number of roots, root size and Harvest Index are major yield determinants to be considered when selecting for root yield in cassava.
  O.O. Aina , A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Akinrinde
  The associations among different traits and their direct and indirect influence on yield using the path analysis and correlation procedures were examined in 20 broad-based cassava genotypes to understand how inter-character relationships influences root yield. Field evaluation was carried out in 4 agroecological zones of Nigeria for two cropping seasons. Data were collected on morphological and yield parameters such as plant height, stem girth, canopy volume, shoot weight, leaf size, number of roots, root size and root yield. Results showed that root parameters such as medium-sized roots with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.95, number of roots (r = 0.91) and small-sized roots (r = 0.77) were highly significantly (p< 0.001) correlated) with root yield. Path analysis revealed that number of roots had the largest direct effect on root yield with a direct path coefficient effect (P) of 0.61, accounting for 86% of the total direct + indirect effects, followed by number of medium-sized roots (p = 0.23), that accounted for 79.2% of the total direct + indirect effects. Small-sized roots had a negative direct effect on root yield (p = -1.21) but a positive indirect effect (p = 1.91) via number of roots. Number of storage roots and medium-sized roots both contributed the largest influence on storage root yield in cassava. These parameters should, therefore, be considered together while selecting for cassava genotypes with higher storage root yield potentials.
  O.O. Aina , A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Akinrinde
  The problem of genotype-by-environment (G x E) interactions that often complicates the interpretation of multilocational trial analysis making the prediction of genotype performance difficult can be eased with the adoption of the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model analysis. The AMMI model was used in this study to evaluate 20 broad based cassava genotypes established in eight environments in Nigeria in order to; identify stable and adaptable genotypes, determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and identify factors contributing to the G x E interaction pattern. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of environments, genotypes and G x E were highly significant (p< 0.001) for storage root yield. AMMI estimates ranked genotypes differently from unadjusted means producing sharper and more stratified rankings. Genotypes 4(2)1425 and 91/02324 was found to be stable and adaptable, 96/0326 was found to be unstable but high yielding, while 96/0590 was highly stable but low yielding. Genotypes 96/0529 and 96/0860 were specifically adapted to Zaria (Northern guinea savanna) and 96/0191 was adapted to Ibadan (forest savanna transition zone). High variation in soil moisture availability was identified as a major causal factor of the interaction observed. Ibadan and Mokwa were relatively stable environments but Mallamadori was highly unstable. Mokwa been highly stable could be considered as a good site for selection broad based improved cassava genotypes.
  O.O. Aina , A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Akinrinde
  Nine cassava genotypes were evaluated for their growth responses and adaptability to soil moisture stress on the field and in the screenhouse in Nigeria. Genotypes were evaluated in three savanna agroecologies in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Screenhouse evaluation was conducted using three moisture regimes of 75, 50 and 25% Field Capacity (FC) in a two-factor factorial experiment in CRD with three replicates. Morphological and yield data were collected on the field and in the screenhouse. Results showed significant (p<0.05) difference among genotypes on the field and in the screenhouse. Field moisture stress led to a decline in plant height by 47%, stem girth by 15%, number of tubers by 95% and tuber yield by 87%. Screenhouse moisture condition of 25% FC led to a reduction in plant height by 12.6 and 21.2%, stem girth by 16.3 and 21.7%, number of roots by 94.5 and 88.7% and root weight by 93.3 and 94.9%, respectively at 16 and 30 WAP. Moisture stress therefore resulted into considerable reduction in both vegetative growth and yield of cassava genotypes. Therefore, a concerted effort in breeding cassava for drought tolerance is needed as cassava cultivation is expanding into nontraditional semiarid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Germplasm introduced from Latin America (especially north-eastern Brazil) is providing a unique source of variability to further broaden the genetic base for drought tolerance in cassava.
  M.O. Anetor and E.A. Akinrinde
  Liming and phosphorus (P) fertilization are often required for sustainable crop production on acid mineral soils. Here, P-release in an acidic Typic Paleustalf incubated with lime, crystallizer (CRYS), single superphosphate (SSP) and organic fertilizer (O.F) was evaluated. Short-term and residual effects of lime (2 tha-1) and P (88 kgPha-1) treatments (Control, lime, CRYS, O.F, lime+O.F, lime+CRYS, O.F+CRYS and lime+O.F+CRYS) on performance of two soybean (Glycine max) varieties (early maturing TGx1485-ID and late maturing TGx1844-18E) were also evaluated, using completely randomized design with three replicates. Lime treatments gave highest soil pH increases (7.4-7.7). Sole and combined applications of P-fertilizers led to pH range of 5.0-5.8 compared with control (5.2) while the tendency of SSP to acidify the soil became obvious. After 5 weeks of growth, O.F+RP and O.F treated TGx1485-ID plants were taller (28.50 and 27.66 cm, respectively) than control (20.03 cm) and sole lime (19.33 cm) treated plants. During 2nd cropping, lime treatment produced plants of similar vigor as O.F and O.F+CRYS treatments. The same trend was observed for TGx1844-18E plants. Phosphorus- uptake by TGx1485-ID plants was highest with the application of O.F or O.F+CRYS, being 9.57 or 9.62mg pot-1 and 3.66 or 5.28mg pot-1 in the 1st and 2nd cropping, respectively. The potency of O.F and CRYS as alternative acid soil ameliorants for sustainable agriculture was evident. The liming effectiveness of O.F (applied alone or in combination with other amendments) might be sufficient, especially on long-term basis when soil acidification by the conventional-SSP would have reached an alarming proportion.
  E.A. Akinrinde and T. Gaizer
  Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is widespread in tropical and temperate acid soils. Six rice (Oryza sativa L) varieties (TOX 4008 – 34, TOX 3499-84, FARO 51, LOCAL CHECK, FAROX 317, and WAT 107 – TGR) were evaluated for their P nutrition capability at 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg kg-1 levels of P applied in an Alfisol. Plant height (from 3 weeks after planting, WAP), number of tillers (from 4 WAP), as well as dry matter (DM) yields, P concentration and uptake in partitioned plant parts and P - use efficiency parameters were estimated after 6 weeks of growth. Plant height at 4 WAP, content and uptake of P determined in shoot and root were significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by P application rates. The varieties also differed significantly in their growth; DM production and P - use efficiency, thus permitting their categorization into efficient or non-efficient and responsive or non-responsive types.
  E.A. Akinrinde
  “Sustainable agricultural development has become an international “agenda”, gaining tremendous recognition in developing countries, though originally coined for use in developed nations. Crop yield, farm profit and environmental sustenance are of major concern as majority of humid and sub-humid tropical soils have “marginal fertility”. Yet, plant nutrition is the most singular factor-controlling crop yields. Marginal lands require external inputs to ensure optimum nutrient supply, demanding growers` awareness of plant hunger signs to solve nutritional troubles and sustain productivity on farmlands. This entails multifaceted problems that are of great significance in plant production development in tropical developing countries. Agricultural production needs to be intensified on the basis of progressive social concepts though fertilization (particularly with mineral compounds) is still in its incipient stage in many countries. Indeed, the problem of optimizing nutrient supply to crops remains unsolved even in some countries that boast of intensive crop production and high-level agricultural research. This report considered the plant symptoms that are of significance to the identification of nutritional ailments and their causes. Solutions for reversing them and enhance crop productivity and sustainability were proffered. Guaranteeing optimum nutrition to tropical crops demands advanced level of knowledge about soil-plant systems and on the associated soil and climatic characteristics. Necessary information must be made available to growers apart from promoting discussions of this important and complex problem with (and among) scientists in the region.
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