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Articles by E. Woode
Total Records ( 12 ) for E. Woode
  E. Woode , N. Amidu , W.K.B.A. Owiredu , E. Boakye-Gyasi , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  In the present study, the effect of an ethanolic extract of the roots of the plant in two animal models of depression the Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) has been reported. The extract (100-1000 mg kg-1; p.o.), dose-dependently reduced the duration of immobility in both the FST (ED50: 296.20 ± 53.97 mg kg-1) and TST (203.90 ± 39.01 mg kg-1).The effect of the extract was 20-50 times less potent than imipramime and fluoxetine which were used as standards. Pretreatment with α-methydopa (400 mg kg-1; 3 h; p.o.) attenuated the anti-immobility effects of imipramime but not SJE and fluoxetine. Similarly, pretreatment with reserpine (1 mg kg-1; 24 h; s.c.) abolished the effect of imipramime and partially the effects of SJE but not fluoxetine. A concomitant treatment with α-methyldopa and reserpine attenuated the effects of all but fluoxetine. The extract, imipramime and fluoxetine did not modify motor performance on the rotarod test at all doses tested. Putting all together, present results suggest that SJE has antidepressant-like effects in the model employed and may possibly exert its effects by modifying monoamine transport and/or metabolism.
  E. Woode , E. Boakye-Gyasi , G.K. Ainooson , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  The anti-nociceptive effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta, a plant used locally in Ghana for various painful conditions was assessed, using various pain models. Palisota hirsuta extract (PHE) together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls), all showed significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive activity in all the models used, that is the tail withdrawal test, the inflammatory-induced mechanical hyperalgesia test, the acetic acid induced writhing test and the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effect exhibited by PHE in the formalin test was reversed by the systemic administration of the non-selective opioid antagonist, naloxone, the NO synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and the ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor, glibenclamide. However, theophyline, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist did not reverse this effect. PHE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its anti-nociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration and also morphine tolerance did not cross-generalize to PHE. Overall, the present results demonstrate that the anti-nociceptive effects of PHE might partially or wholly be due to the stimulation of peripheral opioid receptors through the activation of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K+ (NO/cGMP/K+ATP)-channel pathway without tolerance induction after chronic administration.
  E. Woode , E. Boakye-Gyasi , C.A. Danquah , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  The anti-arthritic effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta, a plant used locally in Ghana for various painful inflammatory conditions was assessed, using the Freund’s adjuvant induced-arthritis model in rats. Palisota hirsuta Extract (PHE) as well as dexamethasone and methotrexate, used as positive controls, showed significant dose-dependent anti-arthritic properties prophylactically, curatively and also in combination therapy. PHE (30-300 mg k-1) significantly reduced the arthritic edema in the ipsilateral paw with the highest dose used giving a maximum inhibition of 13.02±8.77%. PHE 300 mg k-1 also significantly prevented the spread of the edema from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paw indicating inhibition of systemic spread. Dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg k-1) and methotrexate (0.1-1.0 mg k-1) significantly and in a dose dependent manner also inhibited polyarthritis edema as well as completely preventing the spread of the arthritis from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws of the treated animals. PHE in combination with methotrexate did not show any significant effect, however, there was a significant inhibition of arthritis in both the acute and the polyarthritis phases when PHE was combined with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone in combination with methotrexate gave the greatest inhibition of both phases with an extreme level of significance as expected. Overall, the present results demonstrate that PHE has anti-arthritic effect which could be similar to that exhibited by methotrexate.
  E. Woode , C.A. Danquah , E. Boakye-Gyasi , C. Ansah and G. Ainooson
  Antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of Capparis erythrocarpos Isert roots (10-300 mg kg-1; p.o.) was evaluated in the mouse formalin test. Morphine (1-10 mg kg-1; i.p.) was used as positive control. The extract dose-dependently reduced pain scores in both phases of formalin-induced nociception with the 100 mg kg-1 dose significantly reducing formalin-induced pain by 47.54±5.65 and 80.01±3.77% in the first and second phases, respectively. Naloxone (an opioid antagonist) did not block the antinociceptive effect of the extract in both the neurogenic phase and the inflammatory phase; however, theophylline (an adenosine antagonist) completely blocked the effect in the neurogenic phase and significantly inhibited the effect in the inflammatory phase. These findings demonstrate that the ethanolic extract of C. erythrocarpos roots has both central and peripheral antinociceptive effect with possible involvement of adenosinergic mechanism.
  E. Woode , E. Boakye-Gyasi , N. Amidu , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  The effect of a 70% (v/v) ethanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta, a traditional West African plant used for CNS disorders and pain, in animal models of anxiety and depression-the open field test, the light/dark box, the Elevated plus Maze (EPM), the Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) has been reported. P. hirsuta (30-300 mg kg-1) treated mice exhibited anxiolytic activity in all the anxiety models used by significantly increasing the percentage of center entries and the percentage time spent in the center of the open field. P. hirsuta also significantly increased the time spent in the lit area in comparison to the time spent in the dark area of the light/dark box. In the EPM, it significantly increased open arm activity which was completely reversed by flumazenil (3 mg kg-1), a specific antagonist of the GABAA benzodiazepine receptor complex. In the antidepressant test, the extract also dose-dependently reduced the duration of immobility in both the FST (ED50: 114.55±72.69 mg kg-1) and TST (70.42±0.06 mg kg-1). Pretreatment with α-methydopa (400 mg kg-1; 3 h; p.o.), reserpine (1 mg kg-1; 24 h; s.c.) or a combination of the two drugs attenuated the anti-immobility effects of both imipramime and the extract but not fluoxetine. Neither the extract nor the standard drugs used modified motor performance on the rotarod test at all doses tested. These results suggest that the extract has anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in the models employed possibly by GABAergic activation and/or effect on monoamine levels in the CNS.
  G.A. Koffuor , E. Woode and P. Amoateng
  The hypoglycaemic effect of the ethanolic Tragia tennifolia Extract (TTE) was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPGT) and alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Acute toxicity studies were also conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats. TTE (53 mg kg-1, p.o.) significantly (p≤0.01) reduced the peak plasma glucose concentration and the AUC of the OGTT curve, by 47.0 and 44.9%, respectively 1 h after its administration and this was comparable to that produced by glibenclamide (0.14 mg kg-1) and metformin (12.14 mg kg-1). TTE like glibenclamide, significantly (p≤0.01) reduced the fasting plasma glucose by 29.1% after 5 h compared to control groups. The AUC for TTE-treated rats was reduced by 14.8%. In alloxan-induced DM rats, insulin (8.5 unit/kg/day) significantly (p≤0.01) reduced hyperglycaemia by 68.6% whereas TTE, glibenclamide and metformin had no significant effects. Acute toxicity studies showed no evidence of toxicity after an oral administration of TTE (0.1-0.5 g kg-1). These results indicate that TTE may be potentially useful in Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) but not for Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM).
  W. K.B.A. Owiredu , M. S. Adamu , N. Amidu , E. Woode , V. Bam , J. Planger-Rhule and C. Opoku-Okrah
  The purpose of this study was to examine the risk associations between indices of obesity [Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR)], cardiovascular risk factors [plasma glucose and cholesterol and blood pressure] and morbidity conditions (Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia) among Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaians. Three hundred and eighty three Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaian subjects (18-85 years of age) were recruited from Pentecost Church, Santasi (101), Assembly of God Bantama (192) and, Assembly of God, Old Tafo (90) in Kumasi, Ghana. The mean BMI were 25.72±5.97 kg m-2, 22.61±3.48 and 27.10±6.33 kg m-2 for the study population, male and female subjects, respectively. The mean WC measurement for the subjects was 90.21±12.29 cm and 85.91±8.77 and 92.10±13.13 cm in male and females, respectively. There were increasing trends between indices of obesity and the severity of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of morbidity conditions (all p-values for trend <0.05). Patients with a greater number of comorbidities also had higher BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR measurements (all p-values for the trend were <0.05 with adjustment for age and gender). Despite Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaian subjects being less obese than subjects from Caucasians countries, the intimate relationships among obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity conditions remain. This study support using lower BMI and WC levels to define obesity and its associated health risks rather than using the criteria established for Caucasians who generally have larger body frames. Obesity is becoming increasingly common among Ghanaian adults. There is, therefore, the need for broad-based programs that facilitate healthy eating and activity patterns for all age groups. Health professionals should incorporate measurement of BMI and WHR into the routine examinations of patients to enhance their evaluation of the health status of their patients.
  C. Ansah , E.A. Mfoafo , E. Woode , C. Opoku-Okrah and W.K.B.A. Owiredu
  In this study, we evaluated the aqueous extract of the roots of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Periplocaceae), an anti-malarial herb in the West African sub-region for possible toxicity in rodents. Administration of cryptolepis (10-1000 mg kg-1) daily for two weeks did not cause significant changes in most of the haematological parameters assessed. However, the MCV reduced from a vehicle-treated value of 63.1 ± 0.6 to 58.1 ± 0.9 g dL-1 at a dose of 10 mg kg-1, which reflected in an increased MCHC (27.8 ± 0.3 to 30.5 ± 0.3 g dL-1), since the Hb concentration remained unchanged. Serum transaminase levels did not change significantly suggesting a limited effect on the liver. Administration of the extract (50-1000 mg kg-1, p.o.) 30 min before pentobarbitone (50 mg kg-1, i.p.) caused a dose-dependent prolongation of the rat sleeping time from 66.6 ± 8.1 min (vehicle-treated control) to 266.5 ± 7.0 min (1000 mg kg-1). Similarly, daily treatment with the extract (50-1000 mg kg-1) for 2 weeks prolonged the sleeping time from 155 ± 28.4 to 292.8 ± 28.7 min. This effect appeared to be CNS-related rather than an enzymatic as reflected in a decreased locomotor activity (19.4 ± 1.5 to 1.8 ± 0.8 min-1) at a dose of 500 mg kg-1 body weight. All together, our results suggest that Cryptolepis could synergize with hypno-sedatives or other CNS depressants and therefore caution needs to be taken in the concomitant administration of Cryptolepis and other CNS depressants.
  E. Woode , P. Amoateng , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  This study presents the effect of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Synedrella nodiflora, a plant used in Ghana for the treatment of epilepsy and pain, in formalin-induced pain and acetic acid-induced writhing assay and the possible mode(s) of action of its analgesic action. For comparison, morphine and diclofenac were used as standard opioid and NSAID respectively. The ethanolic extract (100-1000 mg kg-1; p.o.) and morphine (1-10 mg kg-1; i.p.) dose-dependently decreased both phases of the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior. The antinociceptive effect of S. nodiflora (300 mg kg-1 p.o.) on the first and second phases of formalin induced pain was significantly blocked by caffeine but not by naloxone. In the acetic acid- induced writhing test, diclofenac and S. nodiflora significantly reduced the number of writhes dose dependently. Also, the effect of S. nodiflora (300 mg kg-1 p.o.) was blocked by caffeine (3 mg kg-1 i.p.) but the analgesic effect of diclofenac was enhanced significantly. The observed effects of caffeine on the central and peripheral analgesic effects of S. nodiflora in the formalin and acetic acid induced writhing suggest the possible involvement of adenosinergic mechanism(s).
  E. Woode , N. Amidu , William K.B.A. Owiredu , E. Boakye-Gyasi , E.F. Laing , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  This study has characterized the effect of an ethanolic extract of roots of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (SJE) which are chewed or taken in alcoholic bitters in Ghana for its stimulant effect on the CNS and as an aphrodisiac agent. Four widely used animal models of anxiety: the open field test, elevated plus maze, hole-board and light/dark box were employed. Results were compared qualitatively to those obtained for diazepam and caffeine which served as anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs, respectively. Acute administration of SJE (100-1000 mg kg-1, p.o.) exhibited anxiety-like effects dose-dependently, which were qualitatively similar to those induced by caffeine (10-100 mg kg-1). Both drugs decreased the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of the elevated-plus maze and increased the number of visits to the corners of the open field. In addition, SJE decreased the number and duration of head dips compared to vehicle-treated mice. Also, the extract exhibited anxiogenic properties in hole-board and light/dark box by significantly decreasing the number of head-dips and the time spent in the dark portion of the light/dark box, respectively. In contrast, diazepam (0.1-1 mg kg-1) exhibited a typical profile of an anxiolytic drug. At all doses tested, SJE produced no motor deficits in animals using the rotarod test but decreased spontaneous locomotor activity in the activity cage apparatus. In conclusion, the results indicate that the root extract of S. jollyanum has anxiogenic like effects in mice and thus supports the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
  E. Woode , R.A. Poku , G.K. Ainooson , E. Boakye-Gyasi , W.K.M. Abotsi , T.L. Mensah and A.K. Amoh-Barimah
  The hydro alcoholic leaf extract of Ficus exasperata (Vahl) (family Moraceae) (FEE) was evaluated for its antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties in animal models. The leaf extract (10-300 mg kg-1) showed a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced foot oedema in chicks, with an IC50 of 46.05±12.3 mg kg-1 which was approximately 3.5 times less potent than diclofenac (IC50:13.01±5.28 mg kg-1) and about 130 times less potent than dexamethasone (0.36±0.45 mg kg-1). In the formalin test, the extract showed dose dependent antinociceptive effects in both phases of the formalin test. The role of adenosinergic and opioidergic involvement in the antinociceptive effects was also investigated. While theophylline, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, completely inhibited the antinociceptive effect of the extract, naloxone, an opioid antagonist had very little effect. The extract also showed weak activity in pyrexia induced by baker’s yeast. These results suggest antinociceptive as well as anti-inflammatory activities a confirmation of its traditional use. Also, the results show the involvement of adenosinergic pathway in the antinociceptive effects of FEE.
  C. Amaning Danquah , E. Woode , E. Boakye Gyasi , M. Duwiejua and C. Ansah
  Capparis erythrocarpos Isert (Caparaceae) is a plant used traditionally in Ghana for the treatment of inflammation, fever and pain. The aim of the study was to assess the activity of an ethanolic extract of Capparis erythrocarpos Isert roots in the carrageenan-induced foot oedema model in chicks, an acute inflammatory model and baker’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Pre-treatment with the extract (10-300 mg kg-1; p.o.) significantly inhibited foot oedema in the chicks with maximal inhibition of 48.86±20.41 %; however, the effect was U-shaped. The reference NSAID used, diclofenac (10-100 mg kg-1, i.p.), dose-dependently reduced the oedema with a maximal effect of 58.77±17.15%. Similarly, the steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg kg-1, i.p.), completely inhibited the oedema produced dose-dependently. The effect of the extract on pyrexia was also appreciable. C. erythrocarpos (30-300 mg kg-1; p.o.), significantly and dose-dependently decreased baker’s yeast induced fever. Paracetamol (10-100 mg kg-1; p.o.), used as the reference drug also dose-dependently decreased baker’s yeast induced pyrexia. In summary, C. erythrocarpos has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity and these findings support the use of the extract in traditional medicine for treating inflammatory conditions.
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