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Articles by E. S. Ford
Total Records ( 2 ) for E. S. Ford
  G. Zhao , E. S. Ford , C. Li and A. H. Mokdad
  Aims  To investigate whether US adults with diabetes meet both the national and American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations for physical activity compared with people without diabetes, and to examine the trends of this behaviour over time.

Methods  We analysed data from large nationally representative cohorts from the 1996-2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The number of participants ranged from 98 127 in 1996 to 204 977 in 2005, and the number of people with diabetes ranged from 4379 in 1996 to 13 608 in 2005. Participants were classified by their exercise status and physical activity levels. The age-standardized prevalence of physical activity participation or meeting physical activity recommendations was calculated in people with and without diabetes.

Results  People with diabetes participated less in physical activity (63.1-68.9 vs. 71.7-78.3%) and met physical activity recommendations less than people without diabetes (40.2-42.9 vs. 48.0-51.5% for meeting national recommendations and 38.5-41.7 vs. 46.6-49.8% for meeting ADA recommendations). The percentage of people with diabetes who participated in physical activity in the past 10 years or met physical activity recommendations in the past 5 years did not vary, whereas significantly increasing trends were observed in people without diabetes. The odds for adults with diabetes meeting physical activity recommendations were significantly lower than in adults without diabetes even after multivariate adjustment.

Conclusion  People with diabetes were less likely to meet either national or ADA recommendations for physical activity than people without diabetes. Our results demonstrate the need for more efforts from health-care professionals to promote physical activity in people with diabetes.

  C. Li , L. Barker , E. S. Ford , X. Zhang , T. W. Strine and A. H. Mokdad
  Aims  Anxiety disorders may cause substantial impairment in patient functioning and well-being. Little is known about the relationship between diabetes and anxiety. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety in adults aged ≥ 18 years with and without diabetes in the USA.

Methods  We analysed data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (total, N = 201 575; 20 142 with diabetes; 39.4% men, 77.9% non-Hispanic Whites, 8.1% non-Hispanic Blacks and 7.7% Hispanics; mean age 52.4 years). Diabetes and lifetime diagnosis of anxiety were self-reported. A multivariable log-binomial model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) of anxiety based on diabetes status.

Results  The overall age-adjusted prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety was 19.5 and 10.9% in people with and without diabetes, respectively. After adjustment for educational level, marital status, employment status, current smoking, leisure-time physical activity and body mass index, people with diabetes had a 20% higher prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety than those without (PR 1.20; 95% CI 1.12, 1.30). There were no significant differences in the PR by gender (P = 0.06). However, the ratios differed significantly by age (P = 0.04) and by race/ethnicity (P < 0.01), indicating that people aged 18−29 years (PR 1.70; 95% CI 1.19, 2.43) and Hispanics (PR 1.69; 95% CI 1.33, 2.15) had a higher ratio than their counterparts.

Conclusion  Diabetes was significantly associated with anxiety in adults in this large population-based sample, particularly in Hispanics and young adults.

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