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Articles by E. Ringo
Total Records ( 3 ) for E. Ringo
  The effects of partial replacement of fish meal (FM) with meal made from northern krill (Thysanoessa inermis), Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) or Arctic amphipod (Themsto libellula) as protein source in the diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) on growth, feed conversion, macro-nutrient utilization, muscle chemical composition and fish welfare were studied. Six experimental diets were prepared using a low-temperature FM diet as control. The other diets included northern krill where 20, 40 or 60% of the dietary FM protein was replaced with protein from northern krill, and two diets where the FM protein was replaced with protein from Antarctic krill or Arctic amphipod at 40% protein replacement level. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric. Atlantic salmon grew from 410 g to approximately 1500 g during the 160 day experiment, and Atlantic halibut grew from 345 g to 500–600 g during the 150 day experiment. Inclusion of krill in the diets enhanced specific growth rate in salmon, especially during the first 100 days (P < 0.01), and in a dose–response manner in halibut for over the 150 day feeding period (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio did not differ between dietary treatments, and no difference was found in dry matter digestibility, protein digestibility and fish muscle composition. Good growth rates, blood parameters within normal ranges and low mortalities in all experimental treatments indicted that fish health was not affected either Atlantic salmon or Atlantic halibut fed the various zooplankton diets.
  The aims of this study was to assess the effect of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, originally isolated from gastrointestinal (GI) tract of beluga (Huso huso) and Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus), respectively, on growth, survival and digestive enzyme (amylase, lipase and protease) activities and the population level of LAB in the GI tract. The treatments included 10 different groups; control, separate supplements of Lcurvatus and Leumesenteroides at three different counts [2 x 109, 5 x 109 and 9 x 109 colony forming units (CFU) per gram food] and three combinations of the two LAB (2 x 109 + 2 x 109, 5 x 109 + 5 x 109 and 9 x 109 + 9 x 109 CFU per gram food). The bacteria used in this study were added in lyophilized form to chopped Chironomidae. In the beluga study, highest specific growth rate, survival and improved intestinal enzyme activities were noted in the rearing group fed 9 x 109 L. curvatus per gram food. In Persian sturgeon, the inclusion level of 2 x 109 Leu. mesenteroides had similar positive effect. The ability of LAB to colonize the digestive tract seems to involve host specificity, and our bacteriological results are relevant to initiate future probiotic studies in sturgeons and future directions will be discussed.
  F. Askarian , A. Matinfar , A. Kousha , M. Bahmani , K. Khorshidi , A. Shenavar and E. Ringo
  The composition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in intestine of two species of sturgeon, beluga (Huso huso) and Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus), was analyzed. LAB in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the two sturgeon species was not similar as LAB population levels in beluga was significantly higher than Persian sturgeon. Six strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the GI tract of beluga and Persian sturgeon were characterised by 16S rDNA. Two species of LAB including Enterococcus seriolicida and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were isolated from GI tract of Persian sturgeon and the predominant species was L. mesenteroide. Furthermore, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus sp. were isolated from the GI tract of beluga and the counts of L. curvatus was significantly higher in the GI tract of beluga than other species.
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