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Articles by E. Nkegbe
Total Records ( 4 ) for E. Nkegbe
  E. Nkegbe , V. Emongor and I. Koorapetsi
  The effluent treatment process at Glen Valley Wastewater Treatment Plant was assessed weekly in terms of efficiency over 29 weeks. During this period there were significant removals of COD, BOD5, TSS, NH3-N and TKN. Average reduction of COD, BOD5, TSS, NH3-N and TKN were, 97.7, 99, 98.2, 95.5 and 93.6%, respectively. All these levels of reduction in the final effluent met the target discharge guidelines in Botswana and the treatment plant design discharge guidelines. There was a significant removal of ortho-phosphate (81.4%) in the final effluent, however, the weekly average of 6.82 mg L-1 was higher than the expected discharge of effluent to the environment guideline of <1 mg L-1. There was an increase in NO3- level in the treated effluent (82.2%) over the influent but the final effluent load of 2.7 mg L-1 was below the expected discharge level of 10 mg L-1.
  E. Nkegbe , S. Sankwasa , I. Koorapetse and I. Keikanetswe
  The objectives of this study were to assess the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load removal at the conventional aerobic and the anaerobic routes of the Gaborone City Council, Glen Valley wastewater treatment plant and to assess the efficiency of the various sections of the treatment process in COD load removal. The Gaborone City Council Wastewater Treatment Plant at Glen Valley combines both the conventional and the anaerobic systems of waste water treatment. The reactors have a total volume of 301874 m3 with anaerobic reactor volume of 189000 m3 inclusive. A total of 1711 tonnes of COD was removed monthly and 56.3 daily over a five month study period at the conventional aeration process unit whilst the Secondary Digester removed monthly 1.02 tons and 34 kg daily. Both reactors therefore removed 1712 tons of COD monthly and 57.2 tons daily. The performance of the anaerobic digesters in COD load removal was poor (3.5%) due to unfavourable pH, temperature and high volatile acid to total alkalinity ratios (poor buffering capacity) during the study period. For efficient performance from the digesters, the temperature, pH and the volatile acid to total alkalinity ratios must be rigidly monitored to generate the required environment for micro flora activity.
  E. Nkegbe
  This study was undertaken to assess heavy metal compositions in the sludge produced at the Glen Valley Wastewater Treatment Plant. Arsenic (Ar), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were monitored using methods by the USA EPA and using Shimazu Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Heavy metals composition ranges obtained in the sludge were 0.75-1.23, 27.3-33.1, 445-482.1 and 291-446.1 mg kg 1, respectively for Ar, Ni, Pb and Zn. These levels were within the composition of heavy metals concentrations documented for sludge in, use and disposal of municipal sludge in the United States of America. More research must be done to ascertain the levels of heavy metals concentrations in sludge that will trigger bioaccumulation in crops to hazardous levels and because all the metals studied were identified in the sludge, disposal methods must be adequate to prevent environmental pollution since at their present levels, they are potential pollutants.
  E. Nkegbe and I. Koorapetse
  This study assessed the compositions of five heavy metals in Gaborone Industrial effluent from five industrial premises; a brewery, pharmaceutical company, paints and chemical industry (commercial photography studios and a soap manufacturing company).The heavy metals monitored were Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). All the industries discharged during the study period a certain amount of Nickel although in very minute concentrations in relation to the Gaborone City Council Sewer guidelines. Only the Photographic companies discharged Fe, 669.5 μg L 1 and none of the industries discharged Zn, Cd and Pb. Also, the Secondary Settling Tank (SST) effluent and dry sludge from the Gaborone city council wastewater treatment plant contained some amount of Ni, Zn, Pb and Fe. Potential discharge sources exist other than the five industries monitored for the discharge of Fe, Pb and Zn into the Gaborone city council sewers and these could be the educational facilities, testing laboratories and yet to be covered industries as well as the City council laboratory itself.
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