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Articles by E. Muller
Total Records ( 4 ) for E. Muller
  K.D. Adjata , E. Muller , M. Peterschmitt , O. Traore and Y.M.D. Gumedzoe
  Problem statement: This study was carried out to demonstrate that the severity of Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) in Togo, is not only influenced by synergism between cassava Begomoviruses in presence, but essentially by recombination between the different Begomoviruses infecting cassava. Approach: Foliar samples presenting typical biological features of Begomoviruses infection were collected from cassava and wild infected plants from different regions of Togo and analysed by PCR targeting the Coat Protein (CP). The PCR products obtained from different isolates of two major Begomoviruses species infecting cassava in Togo were then sequenced and compared with the sequenced of the African cassava mosaic Begomoviruses identified to date and available in NCBI GenBank database by phylogenetic analysis. Results: The results indicate that not only the two major Begomoviruses could be in synergistic interaction in infected cassava in Togo as it has been shown between African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) and East African Cassava Mosaic Virus (EACMV) elsewhere, but could also create recombinants which would be highly interfering in the development of symptom severity in the country. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study confirmed the assumption that the symptom severity in cassava fields in Togo is rather caused by recombination between different Begomoviruses in presence than by synergistic interaction. More investigations should be done to give insight to this founding.
  K.D. Adjata , E. Muller , M. Aziadekey , Y.M.D. Gumedzoe and M. Peterschmitt
  Cassava is infected by numerous Begomoviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. In order to identify viruses responsible for the disease and characterize them, surveys were conducted in all cassava production zones in Togo. The symptom severity of these viral diseases was recorded. Foliar samples from cassava and other infected plants were collected and analysed by PCR. The results obtained reveal that the severity of the symptoms varies from one locality to another, some more severely cassava infected plants than others. The percentage of the cassava plants presenting typical mosaic symptoms varies from 55 to 85% and the percentage of cassava plants severely infected (score 4 or 5) varies from 4.9 to 36%. Molecular analyses by PCR of the viral DNA extracted from the diseased samples using specific primers revealed for the first time that African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) is not the only Begomovirus responsible of cassava mosaic disease in Togo, but two other Begomoviruses, East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) are present in Togo. Their incidence rates are 73.59, 44.62 and 4.01%, respectively for ACMV, EACMV and ICMV. Mixed infections were also identified at the rates of 39.45% in the case of (ACMV + EACMV), 1.72% for ACMV + ICMV and 1.29% when the three viruses were combined (ACMV + EACMV + ICMV).
  K.D. Adjata , E. Muller , M. Peterschmitt , M. Aziadekey and Y.M.D. Gumedzoe
  I. M Cockburn , M. J MacGarvie and E. Muller

We examine the relationship between fragmented intellectual property (IP) rights and the innovative performance of firms, taking into consideration the role played by in-licensing of IP. We find that firms facing more fragmented IP landscapes have a higher probability of in-licensing. We observe a negative relationship between IP fragmentation and innovative performance, but only for firms that engage in in-licensing. In contrast, greater IP fragmentation is associated with higher innovative performance for firms that do not in-license. Furthermore, the effects of fragmentation on innovation also appear to depend on the size of a firm’s patent portfolio. These results suggest that the effects of fragmentation of upstream IP rights are not uniform, and instead vary according to the characteristics of the downstream firm.

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