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Articles by E. Farshadfar
Total Records ( 10 ) for E. Farshadfar
  E. Farshadfar , M. Qaitoli and R. Haghparast
  In order to locate the genes involved in the inheritance of agronomic and physiological indicators of drought tolerance an experiment was carried out using a wheat-barley disomic addition lines. The results of analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for most of the traits investigated. Mean comparison exhibited that most of the genes controlling drought tolerance criteria are located on chromosomes 4H and 5H. The overall consideration of the indices using Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Germination Stress Index (GSI) and physiological Multiple Selection Index (MSI) indicated that most of the genes responsible for the inheritance of drought tolerance predictors are located on chromosomes 4H and 5H, hence they can be transferred for the breeding of drought tolerance in barley through chromosome engineering and for mapping QTLs by the molecular breeding procedures. A three dimensional-plot and cluster analysis confirmed the same conclusion. Correlation analysis discarded chlorophyll a and b also proline as an indicator of drought tolerance, but proved that Excised Leaf Water Retention (ELWR), Relative Water Content (RWC), Relative Water Deficit (RWD), Relative Water Loss (RWL), Chlorophyll Fluorescence (CHF), Cell Membrane Stability (CMS) and Leaf Chlorophyll Content (LCC) are physiological indices of drought tolerance and they can be used for the improvement of drought tolerance and grain yield via correlated response. Association between field (STI) and laboratory (GSI) indicators of drought tolerance showed that GSI can be considered as an early selection criterion for drought tolerance.
  L. Zarei , E. Farshadfar , R. Haghparast , R. Rajabi and M. Mohammadi Sarab Badieh
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of several selection indices to identify drought resistant cultivars under field and laboratory conditions in Kermanshah, Iran. Twenty bread wheat genotypes differing in yield performances were evaluated using a RCBD design with three replications under two different environments (irrigated and rein-fed) during 2004-2005 growing season. Grain yield of the genotype in the both conditions, Stress Tolerance Index (STI), was calculated for each genotype. Moreover Proline amino acid concentration (PC) in flag leaf of each genotype was also measured in grain filling stage in the stressed condition. Cell Membrane Stability (CMS) of leaf tissues in seedling stage was calculated for each genotype grown in the pots in greenhouse. Germination Stress Index (GSI), coleoptile length and root length, number of roots, Promptness Index in Stress (PIS) and non-stress (PINS) condition were recorded in the controlled condition of laboratory by using a 2x20 factorial experiment within completely randomized design with three replications under two different stress and non-stress (normal) water regimes. The result of analysis of variance exhibited highly significant difference among the genotypes for the most of the traits. Drought stress induced by PEG (polyethylene glycol) decreased all of the traits. Root length was the most sensitive to drought stress. Correlation analysis indicated strong association between STI and CMS and PC. It was inferred from the study that the greater drought tolerance corresponded to the greater cell membrane stability and proline accumulation. Also, highly significant correlation was observed between GSI, STI and PIS. The results imply that these criteria may be screened for indirect selection of drought tolerance in the initial stages of the bread wheat growth.
  E. Farshadfar , S.A. Safavi and M. Aghaee-Sarbarzeh
  In order to investigate the chromosome(s) involved in salt tolerance based on criteria such as Na+, K+ and K+/Na+ discrimination, Stress Tolerance Index (STI) and Multiple Selection Index (MSI), an experiment was carried out under hydroponics culture using a wheat-barley chromosome addition lines. The results of this investigation based on the morphological, physiological and statistical analysis proved the hypothesis that most of the genes controlling traits affecting salt tolerance are located on chromosomes 4H and 5H. Though, chromosome 6H was also ranked among the genotypes with high STI and MSI, this may show that this chromosome carry QTLs affect on salt tolerance, as well. However, higher Na+ and lower K+/Na+ values of this line compared to 4H and 5H show the less effectiveness of this line on salt tolerance. Carrying higher positive traits on chromosome 4H compared to the 5H and 6H may indicate that the 4H chromosome has proportion of positive genes controlling salinity tolerance. The addition line carrying 4H chromosome of barley can be used in wide hybridization programs to transfer useful salt tolerance genes into wheat germplasm. This line may also be used in QTL mapping in the basic research programs.
  E. Farshadfar , S.H. Sabaghpour and N. Khaksar
  In order to study the inheritance and genetic analysis of drought tolerance indicators a six generations of F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross Hashem cultivar x ICCV96029 were studied using generation mean analysis. Genetic variation was found for grain yield, biological yield, No. of pod/plant, No. of seed/plant, earliness and proline content. High heterosis was observed in the F1 hybrid for grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, No. of pod/plant and No. of seed/plant. Genetic analysis indicated dominance in the inheritance of grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, seed weight and No. of seed/plant, while over dominance gene action in the No. of pod/plant, earliness and proline content. Moderate narrow-sense heritability estimates were observed for biological yield, harvest index, seed weight, No. of seed/plant and proline content. Moderate genetic advance for grain yield and proline content indicated that direct and indirect selection through correlated response could be effective. The joint scaling test revealed additivex dominance = [ j ] for grain yield, biological yield and proline content, while duplicate epistasis ( additive x dominance = [ j ] and dominance x dominance = [ l ] ) were shown for No. of pod/plant and No. of seed/pod. Since several important characters are influenced by dominance and non-allelic gene interaction, it is advisable to delay selection to later generation with increased homozygosity.
  M. Farshadfar and E. Farshadfar
  Identifying suitable parental materials is an important phase in the development of hybrid seeds. Thus, a study was conducted to determine the genetic variability among 360 chickpea land races and lines. Appropriate parents selected from a pool of genes of 360 chickpeas which was carried out during the year 2000-2001 in DARI, Sararoud of Iran. The experiment included 12 blocks, each contains 20 plots of 2 m rows. The traits studied were growth type, number of leaflet per leaf, leaflet size, plant height, days taken for 50% flowering, flower color, flowering period, days to maturity, pod size, pod per plant, seed numbers per pod, seed color, seed shape and 100 seed weight. Data based on morphological and phonological traits were analyzed using SPSS software and the statistical procedures: correlation coefficient, cluster analysis, principal component analysis and path analysis. Among the morphological characters, numbers of branches, pod numbers with CV: 41.77 and 37.25% had higher variation, respectively while leaflet with CV: 10.49% had minimum variation. Among the phonological traits the flowering period with CV: 22.02% had highest and flowering time had the least variability. The seed yield per plant ranged from 4.27 to 0.41 g and CV: 51.43% reflected highest variation. The highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.78) was between seed yield per plant and pod numbers. Chickpeas genotypes could be classified into four clusters and 63% of the variance were explained by five PCAs. Path analysis revealed that the pod numbers with 0.745, seed numbers with 0.386, 100 seed weight with 0.268 and single seed with 0.267 had highest direct effect on seed yield.
  M. Farshadfar and E. Farshadfar
  The present research was conducted to determine the genetic variability of 18 Lucerne cultivars, based on morphological and biochemical markers. The traits studied were plant height, tiller number, biomass, dry yield, dry yield/biomass, dry leaf/dry yield, macro and micro elements, crude protein, dry matter, crude fiber and ash percentage and SDS- PAGE in seed and leaf samples. Field experiments included 18 plots of two meter rows. Data based on morphological, chemical and SDS-PAGE markers were analyzed using SPSSWIN soft ware and the multivariate statistical procedures: cluster analysis (UPGMA), principal component. Analysis of analysis of variance and mean comparison for morphological traits reflected significant differences among genotypes. Genotype 13 and 15 had the greatest values for most traits. The Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV), Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) and Heritability (Hb) parameters for different characters raged from 12.49 to 26.58% for PCV, hence the GCV ranged from 6.84 to 18.84%. The greatest value of Hb was 0.94 for stem number. Lucerne genotypes could be classified, based on morphological traits, into four clusters and 94% of the variance among the genotypes was explained by two PCAs: Based on chemical traits they were classified into five groups and 73.492% of variance was explained by four principal components: Dry matter, protein, fiber, P, K, Na, Mg and Zn had higher variance. Genotypes based on the SDS-PAGE patterns all genotypes were classified into three clusters. The greatest genetic distance was between cultivar 10 and others, therefore they would be suitable parent in a breeding program.
  E. Farshadfar , S. Mahjouri and M. Aghaee
  In order to detect gene action and epistatic effects for drought tolerance indicators, 22 diverse genotypes of durum wheat were used in a randomized complete block design with three replications under rainfed and irrigated conditions in the Agricultural Research Center of Kermanshah, Iran. Analysis of variance revealed enough genetic variation and possibility of selection between genotypes. Mean comparison, using Duncan multiple range test, indicated that genotypes 12, 13 and 21 were suitable in drought conditions. In three-dimensional plot, based on STI index, genotype 21 was grouped as a one cluster. Triple test cross analysis indicated epistatic effects for heading date, ruin irritability and proline content in the rainfed condition. Both additive and non-additive gene actions were significant for grain yield, proline content and ruin irritability in the water stress condition. For these traits, selection in segregating generations and hybridization breeding methods were offered. Only additive gene action was predominant for heading date in the rainfed condition. Thus, selection in early segregated generations and massive selection are considered. Higher D than H for all characters was showing incomplete dominance. Correlation coefficient(r) between sums and differences of lines were non-significant, indicating ambidirectional nature of dominant genes between lines.
  E. Farshadfar , M. Aghaie Sarbarzeh , M. Sharifi and A. Yaghotipoor
  In order to estimate additive and dominance components of genetic variance and detection of non-allelic interaction for the salt tolerance criteria in barley, 7 generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, F3, BC1, BC2) derived from the cross Wiesel burger/AborxLokus/Bda and the check were used in a split plot design with two replications in hydroponic culture. Significant differences were found between both salinity levels and genotypes for all the characters investigated. Mean generation analysis indicated the involvement of additive, dominance and epistatic type of gene action in the inheritance of leaf weight (additive, dominance and epistasis), biomass (additive and epistasis), K+, Na+ and K+/Na+ (dominance and epistasis). Heritability estimate was low for K+ and Na+, moderate for shoot length, leaf weight, biomass and K+/Na+ and high for root length. Over dominance type of gene action was found for shoot length, biomass, K+, Na+ and K+/Na+, while partial dominance for root length and leaf weight.
  E. Farshadfar , H. Ghasempour and H. Vaezi

In order to evaluate molecular indices of drought tolerance and selection of drought tolerance genotypes in bread wheat a randomized complete block design was carried out with three replications in the field of research station of Sararood, Kermanshah, Iran. Positive significant correlation coefficient was observed between grain yield and proline, soluble sugar and total protein under rainfed condition. Based on the grain yield, proline content, soluble sugar and total protein the genotypes were classified into four clusters using cluster analysis and UPGMA method. Genotypes numbers 4, 9, 10, 11, 18 and 19 in the first clusters indicated the highest performance.

  E. Farshadfar
  In order to determine stable bread wheat genotypes with high grain yield via a single parameter, field experiments were conducted with 20 genotypes for 4 consecutive years in two different conditions (irrigated and rainfed) in a completely randomized block design with three replications in each environment. Combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences for the GE interaction indicating the possibility of selection for stable entries. The results of additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis revealed 10% of total variability was justified by the GE interaction which was 2.5 times more than that of genotypes. Ordination techniques displayed high differences for the interaction principal components (IPC1, IPC2 and IPC3), exhibiting that 83% of the GE sum of squares was justified by AMMI1, AMMI2 and AMMI3, i.e., 3.77 times more than that explained by the linear regression model displaying the relative efficiency of AMMI1 model in comparison with regression model. AMMI stability value (ASV) discriminated genotypes G6, G9, G14, G15, G17 and G18 as the stable entries. As stability per se is not a desirable selection criterion, because the most stable genotypes would not necessarily give the best yield performance, hence, simultaneous consideration of grain yield and ASV in a single non-parametric index entitled: Genotype Selection Index (GSI), discriminated G6 and G17 with general adaptability and high grain yield for rainfed and irrigated conditions which was in agreement with the results of biplot analysis.
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