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Articles by E. Bremer
Total Records ( 3 ) for E. Bremer
  J.J. Miller , T.W. Curtis , E. Bremer , D.S. Chanasyk and W.D. Willms
  Off-stream watering troughs may reduce surface water pollution by keeping nutrients away from natural water bodies, but may increase nutrient contaminant of groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent off-stream watering troughs active for 2 to 7 yr caused enrichment and leaching of soil test P (STP) and KCl-extractable NO3-N. The study was conducted in the Lower Little Bow (LLB) River watershed of southern Alberta, Canada. Soil samples were obtained at three recently installed off-stream watering troughs, four active cattle watering sites adjacent to the LLB River, and at two sites along a fenced reach of the river with no cattle access. At each location, samples were obtained along four 100-m transects. Surface (0-5 cm) soil immediately adjacent to the LLB River was not enriched in STP or NO3-N, which was attributed to flushing of nutrients during periods of high flow. Surface soil at distances ≤ 5 m from the three water troughs was approximately three times higher in STP than surface soil obtained at distances ≥10 m and was seven times higher in NO3-N. Subsurface soil layers adjacent (3 m distance) to the three water troughs were not enriched in STP compared with background levels (100 m distance). The subsurface soil adjacent (3 m) to the longest active watering trough was enriched in NO3-N to the 60 cm depth compared with background levels (100 m). Greater nutrient enrichment at the off-stream watering troughs than at the cattle watering sites adjacent to the river suggested that this beneficial management practice (BMP) was effective in shifting nutrient distribution away from the river.
  B.M. Olson , E. Bremer , R.H. McKenzie and D.R. Bennett
  The risk of P leaching increases on land that receives manure at rates sufficient to meet crop N requirements, but calcareous subsoils may minimize P loss due to P adsorption. An 8-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different rates of manure on the accumulation and leaching of soil P in a coarse-textured (CT) soil and a medium-textured (MT) soil under typical irrigation management in southern Alberta. Treatments included a non-manured control and four rates of cattle (Bos taurus) manure (20, 40, 60, and 120 Mg ha-1 yr-1, wet-weight basis). In manured treatments, P addition ranged from about 80 to 450 kg P ha-1 yr-1, while P removal by annual cereal silage crops ranged from 15 to 22 kg P ha-1 yr-1. High soil test P (STP) concentrations occurred to a depth of 0.6 m at the CT site and 0.3 m at the MT site. Increase in STP concentration to 0.6 m was equivalent to 43% of net P input, and increase in total soil P was equivalent to 78% of net P input. Non-recovery of net P input suggests that P loss by leaching occurred at these sites and that leaching was more prevalent at the CT site. These calcareous soils have considerable potential to hold surplus P, but may still allow P leaching.
  E. Bremer , H. H. Janzen , B. H. Ellert and R. H. McKenzie
  Eliminating summer fallow or establishing perennial grass elicited measurable gains in soil organic C (SOC) after just 6 yr in a crop rotation study on an Aridic Boroll in southern Alberta. This study was resampled after 12 yr to determine if SOC increases were continuing with time and to evaluate the impact of alternative crop rotation and fertilizer treatments on SOC. The crop rotation treatments included in this study were fallow-wheat (FW), fallow-wheat-wheat (FWW), fallow-flax-wheat (FXW), legume-wheat (LW), continuous wheat (W) and continuous grass (G). The gain in SOC due to the elimination of fallow was 1.5 Mg C ha–1 after 12 yr, no greater than that observed after 6 yr. Soil organic C was the same for all rotations that included fallow (FW, FWW, FXW). Fertilizer treatments that had the greatest benefit on grain yields of annual crops also tended to increase SOC, although differences were barely detectable. The gain in SOC of unfertilized grass compared to the FW rotation was no higher after 12 yr than after 6 yr (3 Mg C ha–1). Under fertilized grass, in contrast, SOC continued to increase at a rate of approximately 0.5 Mg C ha–1 yr–1. Accumulation of light fraction C accounted for most of the gains in SOC that occurred with elimination of fallow or establishment of grass. These findings suggest that much of the SOC gain due to adoption of C-conserving practices in soils like those of this study may occur early, within the first decade, and consist primarily of decomposable soil fractions. If confirmed, this means that C sequestration in these soils may be comparatively short-lived and vulnerable to future loss.
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