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Articles by E. T Hawk
Total Records ( 2 ) for E. T Hawk
  J Lin , J Wang , A. J Greisinger , H. B Grossman , M. R Forman , C. P Dinney , E. T Hawk and X. Wu
 

We evaluated the association between energy balance and risk of bladder cancer and assessed the joint effects of genetic variants in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genes with energy balance. The study included 803 Caucasian bladder cancer patients and 803 healthy Caucasian controls matched to cases by age (±5 years) and gender. High energy intake [odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.23-2.09] and low physical activity (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.10-3.79) were each associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer with dose-response pattern (Ptrend < 0.001). However, obesity (body mass index, ≥30) was not associated with the risk. Among 222 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in six genes of mTOR pathway were significantly associated with the risk. Further, the risk associated with high energy intake and low physical activity was only observed among subjects carrying a high number of unfavorable genotypes in the pathway. Moreover, when physical activity, energy intake, and genetic variants were analyzed jointly, the study population was clearly stratified into a range of low- to high-risk subgroups as defined energy balance status. Compared with subjects within the most favorable energy balance category (low energy intake, intensive physical activity, low number of unfavorable genotypes), subjects in the worst energy balance category (high energy intake, low physical activity, and carrying ≥7 unfavorable genotypes) had 21.93-fold increased risk (95% CI, 6.7-71.77). Our results provide the first strong evidence that physical activity, energy intake, and genetic variants in the mTOR pathway jointly influence bladder cancer susceptibility and that these results have implications for bladder cancer prevention. Cancer Prev Res; 3(4); 505–17. ©2010 AACR.

  M. M Bertagnolli , M Hsu , E. T Hawk , C. J Eagle , A. G Zauber and for the Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib (APC) Study Investigators
 

Statins are widely prescribed for cardiovascular disease prevention and also commonly used in patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. We report the results of a planned secondary analysis of the relationship between statin use and colorectal adenoma risk in a large chemoprevention trial. The Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib (APC) trial randomized 2,035 adenoma patients to receive placebo (679 patients), 200 mg celecoxib twice daily (bid; 685 patients), or 400 mg celecoxib bid (671 patients). The study collected complete medical history and medication use data and performed colonoscopic surveillance to 5 years after study enrollment. The effects of statin use on newly detected adenomas and cardiovascular adverse events were analyzed as time-dependent variables by multivariable Cox regression. Statins were used by 36% (n = 730) of APC trial participants. When adjusted for covariates including cardioprotective aspirin use, age, and sex, participants on the placebo arm who used statins at any time had no benefit over 5 years compared with never users (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.56; P = 0.065). Statin use for >3 years increased adenoma risk over 5 years (risk ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.86; P = 0.024). For all comparisons of patients treated with celecoxib, adenoma detection rates for statin users and nonusers were equivalent. Consistent with their use in patients at high risk, cardiovascular serious adverse events were more common among statin users. For patients at high risk of colorectal cancer, statins do not protect against colorectal neoplasms and may even increase the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. Cancer Prev Res; 3(5); 588–96. ©2010 AACR.

 
 
 
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