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Articles by E. J Topol
Total Records ( 3 ) for E. J Topol
  J. S Berger , D. L Bhatt , S. R Steinhubl , M Shao , P. G Steg , G Montalescot , W Hacke , K. A Fox , A. M Lincoff , E. J Topol , P. B Berger and Management for the CHARISMA (Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization

Background— Smoking increases platelet aggregability and the degree of platelet inhibition by clopidogrel on ex vivo platelet function tests. Whether smoking status affects the relationship between clopidogrel and clinical outcomes is unknown.

Methods and Results— We evaluated the relationship between smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, or never-smoker) and treatment with clopidogrel on the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among the 12 152 participants from the CHARISMA (Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance) trial who had established cardiovascular disease. Current smoking was associated with an increase in all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85 to 3.60), cardiovascular (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.45), and cancer (HR 3.56, 95% CI 1.96 to 6.46) mortality compared with never smoking. The impact of clopidogrel on mortality differed by smoking status (P for interaction=0.018 for current smokers). Among current smokers, clopidogrel was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.94); clopidogrel did not reduce all-cause mortality among former smokers (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.19) or never-smokers (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.58). A similar pattern was noted for cardiovascular mortality. As expected, no relationship was observed between clopidogrel and cancer mortality by smoking status. The risk of bleeding appeared to differ according to smoking status; randomized clopidogrel was associated with a significantly increased risk of severe or moderate bleeding (HR 1.62, P=0.04) among current smokers but a smaller and nonsignificant increase among never-smokers (HR 1.31, P=0.15).

Conclusions— Clopidogrel therapy may be more effective in current smokers, but it may also confer a greater bleeding risk than in nonsmokers. Further studies are needed to investigate this possibility.

  K Dosh , P. B Berger , S Marso , F van Lente , D. M Brennan , R Charnigo , E. J Topol and S. Steinhubl

Background— We evaluated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention to assess the predictive value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) on adverse cardiac outcomes and the effect of antiplatelet therapy on these outcomes.

Methods and Results— Baseline blood samples were available on 1468 CREDO (Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation) patients for hs-CRP testing and 1096 patients for PAPP-A testing. The 1-year primary end point was the composite incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Patients in the highest 2 tertiles of hs-CRP had more events compared with the lowest tertile (11.4% versus 6.4%, P=0.003). Treatment with clopidogrel reduced the 1-year composite end point for patients in the highest 2 tertiles of hs-CRP (9.1% clopidogrel versus 13.5% placebo, P=0.04) but not in the lowest tertile. Elevated PAPP-A levels were associated with a trend toward more events at 1 year that did not reach statistical significance. Patients in the highest 2 tertiles of PAPP-A randomized to clopidogrel had fewer events (7.3% clopidogrel versus 13.1% placebo, P=0.01), but no benefit was seen in the lowest tertile. A 46% risk reduction with randomization to clopidogrel was seen in patients in the highest 2 tertiles of both biomarkers (8.7% versus 16.2%, P=0.02).

Conclusions— Patients undergoing nonurgent percutaneous coronary intervention who have elevated hs-CRP and PAPP-A have an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. The clinical benefit of adding clopidogrel to aspirin seems greater in those with increased levels of these inflammatory biomarkers.

  V Bansal , O Harismendy , R Tewhey , S. S Murray , N. J Schork , E. J Topol and K. A. Frazer

Next-generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to sequence targeted regions of the human genome in hundreds of individuals. Deep sequencing represents a powerful approach for the discovery of the complete spectrum of DNA sequence variants in functionally important genomic intervals. Current methods for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection are designed to detect SNPs from single individual sequence data sets. Here, we describe a novel method SNIP-Seq (single nucleotide polymorphism identification from population sequence data) that leverages sequence data from a population of individuals to detect SNPs and assign genotypes to individuals. To evaluate our method, we utilized sequence data from a 200-kilobase (kb) region on chromosome 9p21 of the human genome. This region was sequenced in 48 individuals (five sequenced in duplicate) using the Illumina GA platform. Using this data set, we demonstrate that our method is highly accurate for detecting variants and can filter out false SNPs that are attributable to sequencing errors. The concordance of sequencing-based genotype assignments between duplicate samples was 98.8%. The 200-kb region was independently sequenced to a high depth of coverage using two sequence pools containing the 48 individuals. Many of the novel SNPs identified by SNIP-Seq from the individual sequencing were validated by the pooled sequencing data and were subsequently confirmed by Sanger sequencing. We estimate that SNIP-Seq achieves a low false-positive rate of ~2%, improving upon the higher false-positive rate for existing methods that do not utilize population sequence data. Collectively, these results suggest that analysis of population sequencing data is a powerful approach for the accurate detection of SNPs and the assignment of genotypes to individual samples.

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