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Articles by E Martin
Total Records ( 5 ) for E Martin
  S Thiriat , S Riehm , S Kremer , E Martin and F. Veillon

SUMMARY: A retrospective study was conducted on a cohort of 15 patients who underwent surgery because cholesteatoma or abscess was suspected. All patients had MR imaging prior to surgery with diffusion-weighted images (DWI) from which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was calculated. Using this technique, we were able to determine 3 distinct ADC value ranges corresponding to the 3 groups of lesions found at surgery (pure cholesteatoma, cholesteatoma with infection, and abscess or infection). This needs to be confirmed by further studies with a wider range of patients.

  J. H Schiff , N Russ , K Ihringer , C Heal , E Martin and A. Walther

Opinions about satisfaction with care are rarely obtained from children and few studies of this type exist in the area of paediatric anaesthesia. In this study, we developed a comprehensive self-administered questionnaire to measure the level of paediatric and, as a substitute in younger children, parental satisfaction with anaesthesia. In addition, we aimed to identify factors influencing satisfaction and compare results between hospitals.


We followed a rigorous protocol including construction of a pilot questionnaire and qualitative and quantitative analysis. The questionnaire was adapted for confounding variables. We analysed satisfied and dissatisfied groups and compared satisfaction scores between participating hospitals.


A questionnaire was developed which comprised 37 questions assessed on a five-point Likert scale. With a response rate of 71%, a total of 1052 patients completed the questionnaire. In the final analysis, 760 questionnaires (72%) were included. Most questionnaires were answered by the parents [705 (92.8%)]. The mean age of children was 6.7 (4.97) yr. Multivariate analysis found a history of previous anaesthetic problems and the identity of the person answering the questionnaire as influencing factors on the sum score. The most important differences between satisfied and dissatisfied children were found for the dimensions ‘privacy and waiting’, ‘information giving’, and ‘discomfort’. Scores differed between hospitals.


Our psychometric questionnaire provides a novel approach to paediatric patient satisfaction with anaesthesia care and covers areas deemed important by children, parents, and carers. Significant differences between satisfied and dissatisfied groups and between participating hospitals were found.

  C. Y Chung , P Licznerski , K. N Alavian , A Simeone , Z Lin , E Martin , J Vance and O. Isacson

Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson’s disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease. Here, we demonstrate elevated expression of the transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 in A10 dopaminergic neurons of embryonic and adult mouse, primate and human midbrain. Overexpression of orthodenticle homeobox 2 using lentivirus increased levels of known A10 elevated genes, including neuropilin 1, neuropilin 2, slit2 and adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide in both MN9D cells and ventral mesencephalic cultures, whereas knockdown of endogenous orthodenticle homeobox 2 levels via short hairpin RNA reduced expression of these genes in ventral mesencephalic cultures. Lack of orthodenticle homeobox 2 in the ventral mesencephalon of orthodenticle homeobox 2 conditional knockout mice caused a reduction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and selective loss of A10 dopaminergic projections. Orthodenticle homeobox 2 overexpression protected dopaminergic neurons in ventral mesencephalic cultures from Parkinson’s disease-relevant toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, whereas downregulation of orthodenticle homeobox 2 using short hairpin RNA increased their susceptibility. These results show that orthodenticle homeobox 2 is important for establishing subgroup phenotypes of post-mitotic midbrain dopaminergic neurons and may alter neuronal vulnerability.

  E Martin , P Kampfer and U. Jackel

Employees at agricultural working places are often exposed to complex bioaerosols. Investigations of bioaerosols in duck houses revealed concentrations of cultivable bacteria between 0.4 and 3 x 105 colony forming units (CFU) m–3 on tryptone soy agar, 0.3 and 2 x 105 CFU m–3 on actinomycetes isolation agar, and 0.8 and 5 x 103 CFU m–3 on Middlebrook agar, respectively, when incubated at 25°C. At an incubation temperature of 37°C, 0.6–3 x 102 CFU m–3 were counted on MacConkey agar and 0.3–2 x 103 CFU m–3 on Middlebrook agar, and the concentrations of bacteria on glycerol–arginine agar and oatmeal agar incubated at 50°C varied between 0.1 and 2 x 103 and 1 and 7 x 103 CFU m–3, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of cells were observed by fluorescence microscope quantification of cell counts after 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining with 3–8 x 107 cells m–3. A total of 213 colonies with different morphological appearance were selected and the isolated pure cultures were identified at the genus level using the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. In summary, 19 different genera of Actinobacteria, four genera of the Firmicutes, one genus of the Bacteroidetes, and five genera of the Proteobacteria were identified. Several isolates represent new phylogenetic lineages. Based on 16S rRNA gene analyses, some isolates were most closely related to Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Corynebacterium falsenii, Corynebacterium xerosis, Mycobacterium arupense, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which have been grouped into Risk group 2 of biological agents and may cause negative pulmonary health effects. These bacterial species were present in high concentrations up to 104 CFU m–3. For this reason, we recommend an adequate personal breathing protection at these working places.

  G Moroy , E Martin , A Dejaegere and R. H. Stote

The proteins of the Bcl-2 family are important regulators of apoptosis, or programmed cell death. These proteins regulate this fundamental biological process via the formation of heterodimers involving both pro- and anti-apoptotic family members. Disruption of the balance between anti- and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins is the cause of numerous pathologies. Bcl-xl, an anti-apoptotic protein of this family, is known to form heterodimers with multiple pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bad, Bim, Bak, and Bid. To elucidate the molecular basis of this recognition process, we used molecular dynamics simulations coupled with the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area approach to identify the amino acids that make significant energetic contributions to the binding free energy of four complexes formed between Bcl-xl and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 peptides. A fifth protein-peptide complex composed of another anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-w, in complex with the peptide from Bim was also studied. The results identified amino acids of both the anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domains of the pro-apoptotic proteins that make strong, recurrent interactions in the protein complexes. The calculations show that the two anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-xl and Bcl-w, share a similar recognition mechanism. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis for the promiscuous nature of this molecular recognition process by members of the Bcl-2 protein family. These amino acids could be targeted in the design of new mimetics that serve as scaffolds for new antitumoral molecules.

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