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Articles by Dwi Sutiningsih
Total Records ( 3 ) for Dwi Sutiningsih
  Dwi Sutiningsih and Nurjazuli
  Background and Objective: Brusatol is one of quassinoid, derived from Makassar fruit (Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.) and belong to the family of Simaroubaceae. Brusatol has been proven to have insecticidal and anti-feeding activity on larvae of Spodoptera exigua. This study aimed to investigate the larvicidal activity and behavioral response to the larvae of A. aegypti after administration of brusatol and to demonstrate cytotoxicity activity in vero cells. Materials and Methods: Larvicidal activity was monitored using bioassay test. The behavioral response of larval A. aegypti was observed after treatment with various brusatol concentrations and compared directly with control every 10, 30 min and 1, 5 and 24 h. The examination of brusatol cytotoxicity on vero cells performed by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method. Results: The results of this study showed that the behavioral response of A. aegypti larvae after treatment with brusatol has similarity with the behavioral response after treatment with temephos 1 ppm. The behavioral response of A. aegypti larvae showed symptoms of a nerve poison that is excitation, convulsions, tremors and paralysis. The lethal concentration of 50 and 90 (LC50, LC90) to A. aegypti larvae were 0.669±0.106 and 8.331±0.060 ppm, respectively. Brusatol cytotoxic activity on vero cells is low, with IC50 values worth 1402.029±0.164 mg mL–1. Conclusion: The results of this study proved the potential of brusatol as biolarvicide to control the mosquito vector with low levels of cytotoxicity.
  Dwi Sutiningsih , Mustofa , Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto and Edhi Martono
  Background and Objective: Bruceine A is a quassinoid compound isolated from the seeds of Makassar fruit (Brucea javanica L. Merr.) that has a biolarvicidal effect toward Aedes aegypti larvae with a lethal concentration fifty (LC50) and ninety (LC90) of 0.408 and 4.923 ppm, respectively. This study aimed to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of bruceine A on the growth and development of A. aegypti larvae at sublethal concentrations. Materials and Methods: The effect of bruceine A on A. aegypti larvae growth and development was tested using bioassays. Daily counts of the number of larvae that survived or died were taken until all the experimental larvae became either pupae or adults. Dead larvae were assessed for morphological and histological changes. The statistical analysis of growth and development inhibition was performed by using Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann Whitney. The data from observation on morphological and histological changes were descriptively analyzed. Results: Inhibitory effects of bruceine A on the growth and development of A. aegypti larvae were seen at concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm. The morphological changes seen in larvae included damage to the gastrointestinal tract manifested as black spots, folded breathing tubes and detached cuticle and setae as well as smaller body sizes compared to the control group. Histological examination of the larvae indicated diffuse necrosis in the gastrointestinal epithelium accompanied by epithelial cell shrinkage, whereas the core was not visible. Conclusion: It is concluded that bruceine A inhibits growth and development of A. aegypti larvae, as shown by cuticle damage and necrosis of gastrointestinal and respiratory epithelial cells.
  Dwi Sutiningsih , Mustofa , Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto and Edhi Martono
  Background and Objectives: Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is a mosquito species that plays an important role as a vector of diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (L.) resistance against temephos and pyrethroid has been widely reported in several countries including Indonesia. This study aimed to examine the neurotoxic mechanism of bruceine A biolarvicide and to determine the inhibitory activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and gene Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC) on A. aegypti (L.) larvae. Materials and Methods: Bruceine A was obtained by extraction and isolation of Makassar fruit’s seeds. Test of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was based on Ellman method. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel gene inhibitor was tested using PCR. The statistical analysis of inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase was performed by using Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann Whitney. The data from observation on behavior response and VGSC gene were descriptively analyzed. Results: Bruceine A could inhibit the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase as much as 45.083±0.003%, with symptoms of a neurotoxic that is excitation, convulsions, tremors and paralysis. The result of fragment amplification of VGSC gene and electrophoresis on agarose gel 2% generated in a specific band with the size of the fragment bands of 336 bp on samples of larvae that were still sensitive to bruceine A and cypermethrin. Conclusion: Bruceine A isolated from the seeds of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. has been demonstrated as biolarvicide against larvae of A. aegypti (L.), through its neurotoxic properties. The mechanism of neurotoxicity is mediated through inhibition of enzyme acetylcholinesterase and VGSC gene.
 
 
 
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