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Articles by Dong-Er Zhang
Total Records ( 3 ) for Dong-Er Zhang
  Mili Kapoor , Quansheng Zhou , Francella Otero , Christopher A. Myers , Alison Bates , Rajesh Belani , Jianming Liu , Jiann-Kae Luo , Eleni Tzima , Dong-Er Zhang , Xiang-Lei Yang and Paul Schimmel
  In mammalian cells, specific aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases have cytokine functions that require interactions with partners outside of the translation apparatus. Little is known about these interactions and how they facilitate expanded functions that link protein translation to other cellular pathways. For example, an alternative splice fragment of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) and a similar natural proteolytic fragment are potent angiostatic factors that act through the vascular endothelial-cadherin receptor and Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrate mobilization of TrpRS for exocytosis from endothelial cells and the potential for plasmin to activate the cytokine function of the extracellular synthetase. Direct physical evidence showed that the annexin II-S100A10 complex, which regulates exocytosis, forms a ternary complex with TrpRS. Functional studies demonstrate that both annexin II and S100A10 regulate trafficking of TrpRS. Thus, complexes of mammalian tRNA synthetases with seemingly disparate proteins may in general be relevant to understanding how their expanded functions are implemented.
  Yong-Gang Chang , Xian-Zhong Yan , Yuan-Yuan Xie , Xue-Chao Gao , Ai-Xin Song , Dong-Er Zhang and Hong-Yu Hu
  ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene 15) is a novel ubiquitin-like (UbL) modifier with two UbL domains in its architecture. We investigated different roles for the two UbL domains in protein modification by ISG15 (ISGylation) and the impact of Influenza B virus NS1 protein (NS1B) on regulation of the pathway. The results show that, although the C-terminal domain is sufficient to link ISG15 to UBE1L and UbcH8, the N-terminal domain is dispensable in the activation and transthiolation steps but required for efficient E3-mediated transfer of ISG15 from UbcH8 to its substrates. NS1B specifically binds to the N-terminal domain of ISG15 but does not affect ISG15 linkage via a thioester bond to its activating and conjugating enzymes. However, it does inhibit the formation of cellular ISG15 conjugates upon interferon treatment. We propose that the N-terminal UbL domain of ISG15 mainly functions in the ligation step and NS1B inhibits ISGylation by competing with E3 ligases for binding to the N-terminal domain.
  Fumihiko Okumura , Deborah J. Lenschow and Dong-Er Zhang
  The expression of the ubiquitin-like molecule ISG15 (UCRP) and protein modification by ISG15 (ISGylation) are strongly activated by interferon, genotoxic stress, and pathogen infection, suggesting that ISG15 plays an important role in innate immune responses. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) is induced by the similar stimuli as ISG15 and enhances the production of nitric oxide (NO), a pleiotropic free radical with antipathogen activity. Here, we report that cysteine residues (Cys-76 and -143 in mouse, Cys-78 in human) of ISG15 can be modified by NO, and the NO modification of ISG15 decreases the dimerization of ISG15. The mutation of the cysteine residue of ISG15 to serine improves total ISGylation. The NO synthase inhibitor S-ethylisothiourea reduces endogenous ISGylation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of iNOS enhanced total ISGylation. Together, these results suggest that nitrosylation of ISG15 enhances target protein ISGylation. This is the first report of a relationship between ISGylation and nitrosylation.
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