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Articles by Djamel Ait Saada
Total Records ( 2 ) for Djamel Ait Saada
  Fatiha Arioui , Djamel Ait Saada and Abderrahim Cheriguene
  Background and Objective: Improvements in the shelf life of yogurt can be brought about by addition of gelatin not only increase its nutrient content but also improve its properties. The objective of this study was to extract the gelatin from bovine bone, characterize and understand their functional properties and to study the effect of its incorporation on the quality of yogurt. Materials and Methods: Gelatin was extracted from bovine bones after their characteristics and functional properties were analyzed in comparison with commercial gelatin (CG). The effects of bovine gelatin (BG) addition on properties of yogurt added with bovine gelatin (YABG) were studied. Results: The yield of BG was 6.32±0.20% and the pH of BG was 9.63±0.01. It was observed that BG and CG had higher solubility at low pH with a maximum value observed at pH 4. A significant effect (p<0.01) of ionic strength was observed. Increasing the NaCl concentration to more than 2% resulted in a significant decrease of the solubility. BG showed higher foaming expansion (FE) and higher foaming stability (FS) than CG. Increasing the concentration of BG and CG decreased the emulsifying activity index (EAI) but increased the stability index (ESI). Significant effects of BG rate on acidity and pH of YABG were observed. Viscosity of YABG was increased significantly (p<0.01) with increasing the BG rate. YABG added with 1.5% of BG recorded the highest viscosity. In addition, there was a significant effect of BG addition on Streptococcus thermophilus counts. According to sensory properties, addition of BG had significant effect on adhesiveness, cohesiveness and taste of the YABG. Sensory results indicated a preference for YABG with 1.5% of BG. There was no significant effect of BG on the odour and aftertaste of YABG. Conclusion: The bovine bone could serve as raw material for the extraction of gelatin with desired functional. The addition of 1.5% of this gelatin had a considerable effect on the physiochemical properties and the texture of YABG.
  Ouiza Ait Chabane , Djamel Ait Saada , Ahmed Mohamed Ali Bekada , Ghalem Selselet-Attou , Kaddour Bouderoua , Djamel Eddine Kati and Noel Durand
  Background and Objective: Salvadora persica, commonly known as the miswak tree or the toothbrush tree is thought to contain a number of phenolic compounds. The objective of this study is to identify these phenolic compounds and to evaluate their antimicrobial effects on the growth of some germs implicated in certain oral infections. Materials and Methods: Phenolic ethanol extracts were obtained by vacuum evaporation of hydroalcoholic solutions after extraction from varying amounts of crushed root, bark and stem of the test plant. The resulting pure extracts were then diluted with sterile distilled water at different increasing ratio from 0-100%. The phenolic compounds were analyzed by the HPLC method. The antimicrobial effects of these extracts were tested on many reference germs. The antimicrobial activity was tested by monitoring the growth of the germs in specific media while using disk diffusion assays. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of the plant extracts were determined according to the micro broth dilution technique. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls test. Results: The qualitative analysis revealed that chlorogenic acid, catechin and epicatechin emerged as major phenolic compounds from root and stem of Salvadora persica, while bark extracts were rather rich in caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline. The MIC and MFC of Candida albicans were obtained with 40% phenolic extracts of the stem. The data seems to indicate that stem extracts caused a fungicidal action against Candida albicans. The growth of Streptococcus mutans was not affected by the different solutions of phenolic extracts. However, other bacteria belonging to Streptococcus genus such as Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus faecalis and those belonging to Staphylococcus genus including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Lactobacillus casei were completely inhibited with the extracts prepared at 7.5 g of vegetal matter. Conclusion: The antimicrobial effects of phenolic extracts of miswak coming out of this study were close to those described in the study by most researchers. These extracts could be used as a medicament to prevent and to cure oral diseases in Algeria.
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