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Articles by Dirk Grimm
Total Records ( 2 ) for Dirk Grimm
  Dirk Grimm , Joyce S. Lee , Lora Wang , Tushar Desai , Bassel Akache , Theresa A. Storm and Theresa A. Storm
  Adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes differ broadly in transduction efficacies and tissue tropisms and thus hold enormous potential as vectors for human gene therapy. In reality, however, their use in patients is restricted by prevalent anti-AAV immunity or by their inadequate performance in specific targets, exemplified by the AAV type 2 (AAV-2) prototype in the liver. Here, we attempted to merge desirable qualities of multiple natural AAV isolates by an adapted DNA family shuffling technology to create a complex library of hybrid capsids from eight different wild-type viruses. Selection on primary or transformed human hepatocytes yielded pools of hybrids from five of the starting serotypes: 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9. More stringent selection with pooled human antisera (intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIG]) then led to the selection of a single type 2/type 8/type 9 chimera, AAV-DJ, distinguished from its closest natural relative (AAV-2) by 60 capsid amino acids. Recombinant AAV-DJ vectors outperformed eight standard AAV serotypes in culture and greatly surpassed AAV-2 in livers of naïve and IVIG-immunized mice. A heparin binding domain in AAV-DJ was found to limit biodistribution to the liver (and a few other tissues) and to affect vector dose response and antibody neutralization. Moreover, we report the first successful in vivo biopanning of AAV capsids by using a new AAV-DJ-derived viral peptide display library. Two peptides enriched after serial passaging in mouse lungs mediated the retargeting of AAV-DJ vectors to distinct alveolar cells. Our study validates DNA family shuffling and viral peptide display as two powerful and compatible approaches to the molecular evolution of novel AAV vectors for human gene therapy applications.
  Holger Doege , Dirk Grimm , Alaric Falcon , Bernice Tsang , Theresa A. Storm , Hui Xu , Angelica M. Ortegon , Melissa Kazantzis , Mark A. Kay and Andreas Stahl
  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a serious health problem linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes. To investigate the biological outcome and therapeutic potential of hepatic fatty acid uptake inhibition, we utilized an adeno-associated virus-mediated RNA interference technique to knock down the expression of hepatic fatty acid transport protein 5 in vivo prior to or after establishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Using this approach, we demonstrate here the ability to achieve specific, non-toxic, and persistent knockdown of fatty acid transport protein 5 in mouse livers from a single adeno-associated virus injection, resulting in a marked reduction of hepatic dietary fatty acid uptake, reduced caloric uptake, and concomitant protection from diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, knockdown of fatty acid transport protein 5 was also able to reverse already established non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, resulting in significantly improved whole-body glucose homeostasis. Thus, continued activity of hepatic fatty acid transport protein 5 is required to sustain caloric uptake and fatty acid flux into the liver during high fat feeding and may present a novel avenue for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
 
 
 
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