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Articles by Dinesh Kumar
Total Records ( 9 ) for Dinesh Kumar
  C.C. Tripathi , Mukesh Kumar and Dinesh Kumar
  The saddle field fast atom beam sputtered (ABS) 50nm thick molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) films as a diffusion barrier for copper metallization were investigated. To study the diffusion barrier properties of Mo2C films, the as-deposited and annealed samples were characterized using four probes, X-ray diffraction, field enhanced scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford back scattering techniques. The amorphous structure of the barrier films along with presence of carbon atoms at the molybdenum carbide–silicon interface is understood to reduce effective grain boundaries and responsible for increased thermal stability of Cu/Mo2C/Si structure. The lowest resistivity of the as-deposited molybdenum carbide barrier films was ~29μΩcm. The low carbon containing molybdenum carbide was found thermally stable up to 700°C, therefore can potentially be used as a diffusion barrier for copper metallization.
  Atul K. Singh , Dinesh Kumar , Sharad C. Srivastava , Abubakar Ansari , J. K. Jena and U. K. Sarkar
  In this study, we document an increasing trend of catches of alien fish species from the Ganga River system. The changing fishery during 1980 to 2011 and the fish yield rate (kg km−1) are positively correlated with an invasion coefficient index (Ixi) of alien species within the river. The reproductive propagule pressure (PPP) of alien fishes (Cyprinus carpio, Oreochromis niloticus, Aristichthys nobilis, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Clarias gariepinus) was determined and found to be 19.45×106 for C. carpio, 0.33×106 for O. niloticus and 0.82×106 for A. nobilis at confluences suggesting that these alien species may be migrating into new habitats. Further, these invaded species exhibited all reproductive stages, indicating their likely establishment within the river. The trophic spectrum of alien fishes spanned all levels and the gut repetitive index (GRI) indicated that that food items in most of the fishes were similar showing early trends of food-web alteration and biotic homogenization. The results of this study suggested a continuous decline in the catch of local fishes by wet weight, particularly Indian major carps (IMC) from 128.91 kg km−1 to 38.58 kg km−1 owing to increased catches of alien species from nil to 384.27 kg km−1. Invasion of alien species in the Ganga River represented one of many possible causes of the decline in river health and overall loss of native aquatic communities.
  Dinesh Kumar , J.P. Pandey , Jugnu Kumari , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  Tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta produces tasar silk having vast demand in national and international market due to unique quality. During the long period of diapause and quiescence, the cocoons face extremes of temperature (10-46°C) and humidity (30-80% RH) which cause pupal mortality, decreased vigour of moths during grainage and unseasonal emergence. All these losses during the long adverse period of diapause and quiescence require to be reduced to the minimum, so that maximum utilization of seed cocoons is ensured and optimum production of disease free layings is achieved. Cocoon loss in diapausing stock sometimes attains serious proportion. As normal practice, seed cocoons of A. mylitta are used to preserve in different conditions during period of diapause to minimize the loss. In the present study, evaluations of A. mylitta cocoons preservation in concrete grainage house and agro shade net grainage house have been done for synchronize seed production through eco-tasar-friendly technique. Comparative grainage behavior of tasar silkworm in these two modes of cocoons preservation revealed highly significant differences in all grainage parameters. Higher synchronized moth emergence, more coupling percentage, less span of emergence peak was found in cocoons preserved in agro shade net grainage, in comparison to concrete grainage house where higher pupal mortality, abnormal moths and less coupling percentage were observed. Our result clearly indicates that, preservation of seed cocoon under agro shade net grainage house is suitable for seed production.
  J.P. Pandey , P.K. Mishra , Dinesh Kumar , A.K. Sinha , B.C. Prasad , B.M.K. Singh and T.K. Paul
  Generally, Antheraea mylitta cocoons cooking is carried out in alkaline condition by using soap, soda, H2O2, etc., which adversely affects the natural beautiful colour and softness of tasar silk. At eclosion stage, the emerging adults of tasar silkworm, A. mylitta exude a proteolytic enzyme ‘cocoonase’ which helps in softening anterior portion of cocoon shell and facilitates emergence of moths. Interestingly, cocoonase directly acts on the sericin protein without affecting the fibroin protein. It evidently indicates that, sericin is excellent natural substrate of cocoonase. This natural phenomenon engenders an idea to collect the cocoonase of A. mylitta and investigate its possible-efficacy in cocoon cooking. The SDS-PAGE analysis of freshly collected cocoonase (from emerging moths) showed molecular weight around 26 kDa. A simple technique for cocoonase collection from freshly pierced cocoons has been developed. Cooking of cocoon in cocoonase is concentration, pH, temperature and time dependent. Low concentration (1:15, 1:20, 1:25, 1:30 and 1:35) increases the cooking time and decreases the cooking efficiency. Higher concentration (1:5 dilutions) minimises the cocking time and increases the cooking efficiency. But cocoons were not fully reeled due to hardness in inner portion of the cocoons. Initial boiling of cocoon in water for 30 min followed by cooking in cocoonase (1:5) at 35-40°C temperature and 8.5 to 9.0 pH yielded comparatively better cooking efficiency with 50-55% silk recovery. Yarn obtained from the cocoons cooked in cocoonase preserve natural beautiful unique tasar silk colour, softness and lustre.
  Dinesh Kumar , S.S. Bhujbal , P.S. Patil and P.V. Buge
  The aim of study was in vitro and in vivo activities of stem bark of methanolic extract of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. in the management of asthma. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchotitis, cold colic pain etc. Methanolic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa was evaluated using in vitro- goat tracheal chain preparation model and in vivo- milk induced leucocytosis, milk induced eosinophilia and clonidine induced catalepsy in mice models. Dose response studies of methanolic extract were conducted at 30 μg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo models. Treatment with methanolic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa at 30 μg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo showed significant reduction in signs and severity of symptoms (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001). The findings from various studies reveal that the antihistaminic activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa may be due to the reduction in histamine induced contraction in goat tracheal chain preparation model and mast cell stabilizing potential. Inhibition of release of inflammatory mediators by decreasing total leucocytes and eosinophiles count, potentiate the antiasthmatic activity.
  Dinesh Kumar , Z.A. Bhat , P. Singh , M.Y. Shah and S.S. Bhujbal
  Over the past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of herbal health claims. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. is a tree belonging to family Simaroubaceae, indigenous to Central and Southern India. Commonly it is known as a plant of Heaven. The traditional claims, phytochemical investigations and pharmacological evaluation and some ayurvedic formulations provide the backbone to make this tree as a plant of Heaven. This is not wrong to say that it is largactil because it has number of activities. This review article explores the traditional knowledge or claims along with pharmacognostical, phytochemical, pharmacological and future aspects of this plant. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering new phytoconstituent that have been used for the treatment of number of diseases; many such treatments are useful even today as modern day medicine. Emerging evidence also suggests that search is still continuing for harnessing active compounds from nature in combating human illnesses and it also leads the path to search out new active natural and novel semisynthetic or synthetic compounds.
  Sapna Raghav , Ritu Painuli and Dinesh Kumar
  Nanotechnology is the technology having massive capacity in the areas of biology, biotechnology and medicine technology etc. It includes understanding and controlling materials ordinarily in the size range of 1-100 nm. Owing to their nanoscale effects and enhanced surface area. Nanomaterials have been explored as promising tools for the progression of medication and gene delivery, diagnostic biosensors and biomedical imaging. In contrast with their larger counterparts, nanomaterials have inimitable physicochemical and biological properties. These nanomaterials are at the leading edge in the field of nanotechnology. Numerous properties of the nanomaterials, for instance, size, shape, surface structure, chemical composition and charge significantly influence their interactions with biomolecules and cells. Nanoparticles with size-tunable light emanation have been utilized to create uncommon pictures of tumor destinations. Single-walled carbon nanotubes, having distanced across practically identical to the width of DNA atoms. They have exhibited a great potential as high-effciency delivery conveyance transporters for biomolecules into cells. Thus, in this review, a brief account of the diverse types of nanosystems is discussed. The applications of various nanomaterials in the biomedical area have been explained in detail. The diverse applications of nanomaterials in drug delivery, gene delivery, etc. have been clearly discussed. Therefore, this review would help the readers to better understand different types of nanomaterials along with the diverse applications of these nanometers in the biomedical field.
  J.P. Pandey , Dinesh Kumar , Sony K. Roy , P.K. Mishra , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  Tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury DABA-ecorace is commercially exploited in India for tasar silk production. Generally, its cocoons used to preserve in outdoor and indoor conditions. But in recent past, due to global warming, tasar silk zone day time temperature (May-June) shoots up and it goes up to 35 to 45°C or even more. It cause adverse impact on the survival of tasar silkworm pupae and invite heavy loss to the tasar silk industry. In the present study, hemocyte and enzyme-based methods have been used to evaluate the impact of outdoor and indoor seed cocoon preservation on A. mylitta pupae. Interestingly, differences in Total Hemocyte Count (THC), hemocyte contour/morphology, protein concentration, fat body and hemolymph acid phosphatase (Acp) activity of outdoor and indoor preserved pupae have been observed. Marked variation in THC was observed among high, low and median weight pupae. Although, no significant variation was observed in THC of indoor and outdoor preserved female pupae but significant difference was found in male pupae of both the preservation conditions. Differential profile of hemocytes was differing in outdoor and indoor conditions with change in cell-contour. Elevation in immune cell “plasmatocytes (PLs)” numbers was recorded in indoor preserved cocoon. Acp activity in fat body of indoor preserved pupae was higher than outdoor but reverse trend was found in hemolymph. Activity profile Acp vary in male and female with higher, lower and median weight pupae. Protein concentration in hemolymph of outdoor preserved pupae was more in comparison to indoor but this trend was found usually reverse in fat body. In addition, less protein concentration was recorded in fat body and hemolymph of male pupae in contrast to female. It is expected that, based on hemocyte and enzyme-based method impact of cocoon preservation conditions on A. mylitta pupae can be evaluated/observed.
  Dinesh Kumar , J.P. Pandey , Ragini , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury is sericigenous wild insect has own dictation on its life cycle stages. Being a poikilothermic organism, temperature decides the fate of A. mylitta during embryonic and postembryonic development. Silkworm eggs (seed) is very vital input of tasar silk industry but due to global warming elevation in temperature with less humidity during 1st crop grainage of A. mylitta negatively affects the quality and quantity of egg hatching. In the present study, impact of temperature stress on embryonic development and biochemical profile of A. mylitta eggs has been investigated. Data reveals that considerable alteration in temperature used to hamper the protein and carbohydrate profile which leads to affect the embryonic development and hatching of eggs. Fluctuation in temperature with low humidity causes delay in egg hatching and decrease in hatching percentage. But higher temperature with low humidity during embryonic development of eggs resulted in death of embryo during early age. The depressed eggs with fully formed dead larvae inside the eggs were found after high temperature stress. The concentration of the protein and carbohydrate steadily decreases during subsequent larval differentiation until hatching. Protein and carbohydrate profile also confirm the death of embryo during early stage. In un-hatched eggs, due to less metabolized utilization higher concentration of these nutrients are available. Our initial information indicates that protein and carbohydrate profile can be utilized as biochemical marker for testing appropriate embryonic development and hatchability of eggs.
 
 
 
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