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Articles by Deependra Singh
Total Records ( 5 ) for Deependra Singh
  Manju Rawat Singh , Deependra Singh and Swarnlata Saraf
  The aim of present study was to apply experimental design methodology in the development and optimization of carrier system for highly water-soluble polypeptide in salt form. Enalapril Maleate (EM), developed for hypertension and congestive heart failure, was used as a model peptide. A three-level three-factorial Box-Behnken experimental design was used to characterize and optimize three physicochemical parameters, i.e., drug concentration (10, 20 and 30 mg), External Aqueous Phase volume (EAP) (50, 100 and 150 mL) and stabilizer (Tween 80) concentration (0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% v/v) on the entrapment and size of Eudragit S100 microspheres prepared by modified double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and multiple response optimization utilizing the polynomial equation were used to select optimal formulation with maximum entrapment and particle size in range. The maximum entrapment (80.62±1.56%) was achieved with 10 mg drug, 50 mL EAP and 0.15% v/v Tween 80 and the observed responses coincided well with the predicted values from the RSM optimization technique. The drug release from formulations showed a controlled-release pattern following Higuchi Kinetics. HPLC chromatograms of drug released from microspheres showed the intact nature of peptide. In conclusion, a novel, oral controlled-release delivery system for highly water soluble peptide was successfully developed by experimental design methodology. It is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time and with the fewest number of experiments.
  Chandarani Sutar , Deependra Singh and K.S. Verma
  The global climate change and rapidly growing population over the decades are creating an enormous burden on conventional energy sources. Global environmental concern is expected for proper planning of renewable sources to increase a positive impact on global warming. The hybrid renewable energy system is proposed for optimum sizing, costing, quality and reliability of supply for the standalone system. This research study also includes a multi-objective optimization of the net present cost, fuel cost, operating cost and cost of energy of the hybrid system. A hybrid renewable energy system has been designed which includes solar, wind, battery and diesel generator for a standalone off-grid. The simulation and techno-economic analysis of case studies indicate that the hybrid system decreases the operating cost according to meteorological conditions. The employed algorithm for power management, results in minimum use of diesel generator and a reduction in fuel cost. Furthermore, the proposed system shows better results when analyzed for loss of power supply probability, renewable factor, carbon content and sensitivity. Thus, the proposed model proves that minimum utilization of diesel generator requires maximum utilization of renewable energy sources, thereby reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and reducing global warming.
  Deependra Singh , Manju Rawat Singh , Swarnlata Saraf and S. Saraf
  The aim of present study was to apply experimental design methodology in the development and optimization of carrier system for Serratiopeptidase by modified double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. A three-level three-factorial Box-Behnken experimental design was used to characterize and optimize three physicochemical parameters-Eudragit RS100 concentration, external aqueous phase volume and stirring speed of primary emulsion on the entrapment and size of microspheres. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and multiple response optimization utilizing the polynomial equation were used to select optimal formulation with maximum entrapment and particle size in range. The maximum entrapment (80.62±1.96%) was achieved with 300 mg Eudragit RS100, 100 mL EAP and 2000 rpm as stirring speed and the observed responses coincided well with the predicted values from the RSM optimization technique. In vitro proteolytic activity confirmed the bioactivity of peptide after microencapsulation. The drug release from formulations showed a similar sustained release showing an initial burst followed by diffusion. In conclusion, a novel, controlled-release delivery system for peptide drug was successfully developed by experimental design methodology with the fewest number of experiments.
  Amber Vyas , Sourav Kisore Das , Deependra Singh , Avinesh Sonker , Bina Gidwani , Vishal Jain and Manju Singh
  Very few drug delivery systems are potent enough to fight against cancer yet gentle enough on the body. The Nanoparticles have been successfully utilized to create a new drug delivery system for treatment of cancer. Study and application of nanoparticles is advancing rapidly within the pharmaceutical field. These nano-sized materials, e.g., “nanoparticles”, take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from that delivery system presently available in market. The nano-size and surface improved solubility and multi-functionality of nanoparticles. This improves the quality and the biomedical applications of the nanoparticles. The skin provides a physical barrier to the harmful effects of the external environment in the body. The skin cancer appears in the upper layer of the skin. In recent years there has been an exciting increase in the prevalence of skin cancer worldwide. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common diagnosed cancer in the UK accounting for a quarter of all new cancer cases. It is a slow growing form of cancer and can be present many years before detection. Several obstacles frequently still encountered with the skin cancer. In general, the best way to eliminate a problem is to eliminate the cause. This article has reviewed nanoparticulate delivery system with a view as to its impact on skin cancer.
  Manju Rawat Singh , Deependra Singh and Swarnlata Saraf
  In the present study, efforts have been made to statistically optimize the formulation parameters of sustained-release lipospheres of Enalapril maleate, a water-soluble peptide, using wax and polar lipid combination. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to derive a second order polynomial equation and construct 3D surface plots to predict the effect on responses. The peptide amount (X1), Tween® 80 concentration (X2) and stirring speed (X3) were selected as independent variables while the mean diameter (Y1) and the entrapment efficiency (Y2) of lipospheres were chosen as the dependent variables in the present investigation. Lipospheres were prepared by Water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion (w/o/w) method. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and multiple response optimization were used to select optimal formulation with maximum entrapment and particle size in range. The optimal formulation was subsequently characterized in terms of morphology, release kinetics and stability studies. The maximum entrapment (80.62±2.54%) was achieved with 10mg EM, 0.1% (v/v) Tween® 80 and 1000 rpm stirring speed. The observed responses coincided well with the predicted values from the RSM optimization technique. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the smooth spherical microspheres in the size range of 23.00±0.82-34.57±1.04 μm. Kinetic models revealed that drug release followed non-Fickian release pattern. Finally, drug bioactivity was found to remain intact after microencapsulation. Thus, Box-Behnken design demonstrated the role of the derived equation and 3D surface plots in predicting the values of dependent variables for the preparation and optimization of Enlapril maleate loaded lipospheres.
 
 
 
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