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Articles by David R. Sullivan
Total Records ( 3 ) for David R. Sullivan
  Ahmad Al-Sarraf , Khalid Al-Ghofaili , David R. Sullivan , Kishor M. Wasan , Robert Hegele and Jiri Frohlich
  Complete apo A1 deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that has been associated with premature atherosclerosis. We describe a family of Iraqi Mandaean background with complete apo A1 deficiency caused by a new nonsense mutation in the APOA1 gene. Interestingly, there were marked differences in the clinical presentation of the two homozygotes in this family. A 35-year-old woman presented with xanthelasmas and xanthomas but showed only minimal changes on cardiovascular examinations and no clinical symptoms. However, her 37-year-old brother was diagnosed with myocardial infarction at age 35. In addition, both the homozygotes had elevated C-reactive protein levels. The C-reactive protein levels increased three-fold during pregnancy, then decreased postpartum and further decreased with statin treatment. Cholesterol ester transfer protein mass was close to the upper reference range, whereas the activity was low, likely because of the lack of the substrate. Here, we characterize the phenotype and genotype of the first Middle Eastern family with apo A1 deficiency and compare and contrast the findings in the two homozygous siblings and review the previously reported cases of apo A1 deficiency.
  Nimalie J. Perera , Jennifer C. Burns , Ryle S. Perera , Barry Lewis and David R. Sullivan
 

Background

Low plasma levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high triglyceride (TG) are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical recognition of this high-risk population demands accurate measurement of HDL-C, whereas cost and clinical demand dictate that optimal HDL-C measurement requires fully automated methods that avoid manual precipitation. Commercial techniques use specific reagents to selectively expose and “directly” measure cholesterol in HDL. However, these “direct” methods may experience interference from the cholesterol content of triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins (TRL), leading to analytical overestimation of HDL-C, with subsequent underestimation of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and of CVD risk.

Objective

The aim of this study was to develop a method to overcome this interference.

Methods

Serum/Li+-heparin plasma samples from consecutive patients were analyzed for HDL-C by the comparison of three generations of the Roche Diagnostics, HDL-C assay on a Hitachi-917 or Modular-PPE analyzer. HDL-C measurement was performed before and after removal of TRL by ultracentrifugation (“direct” HDL-C and HDL-UC, respectively). We examined the effect of TG on the relationship between HDL-UC and “direct” HDL-C. Analysis of variance multiregression analysis was performed for each generation of the commercial assay.

Results

We observed progressive TG interference that increased “direct” HDL-C by 10% to 15% or more in moderately hypertriglyceridemic samples (<600 mg/dL). Predictive equations were derived for each generation of the assay to estimate HDL-C in the absence of TRL.

Conclusions

This study casts doubt on the specificity of “direct” HDL-C assays in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. The use of assay-specific correction formulae to adjust for interference from TRL reduces the overestimation of HDL-C that influences CVD risk calculation, treatment, and follow-up of patients.

  Gerald F. Watts , Samuel Gidding , Anthony S. Wierzbicki , Peter P. Toth , Rodrigo Alonso , W. Virgil Brown , Eric Bruckert , Joep Defesche , Khoo Kah Lin , Michael Livingston , Pedro Mata , Klaus G. Parhofer , Frederick J. Raal , Raul D. Santos , Eric J.G. Sijbrands , William G. Simpson , David R. Sullivan , Andrey V. Susekov , Brian Tomlinson , Albert Wiegman , Shizuya Yamashita and John J.P. Kastelein
  Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder present from birth that markedly elevates plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and causes premature coronary heart disease. There are at least 20 million people with FH worldwide, but the majority remains undetected, and current treatment is often suboptimal. To address this major gap in coronary prevention we present, from an international perspective, consensus-based guidance on the care of FH. The guidance was generated from seminars and workshops held at an international symposium. The recommendations focus on the detection, diagnosis, assessment, and management of FH in adults and children and set guidelines for clinical purposes. They also refer to best practice for cascade screening and risk notifying and testing families for FH, including use of genetic testing. Guidance on treatment is based on risk stratification, management of noncholesterol risk factors, and the safe and effective use of low-density lipoprotein-lowering therapies. Recommendations are given on lipoprotein apheresis. The use of emerging therapies for FH is also foreshadowed. This international guidance acknowledges evidence gaps but aims to make the best use of contemporary practice and technology to achieve the best outcomes for the care of FH. It should accordingly be used to inform clinical judgment and be adjusted for country-specific and local healthcare needs and resources.
 
 
 
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