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Articles by David B. Teplow
Total Records ( 2 ) for David B. Teplow
  Regina Fluhrer , Akio Fukumori , Lucas Martin , Gudula Grammer , Martina Haug-Kroper , Barbel Klier , Edith Winkler , Elisabeth Kremmer , Margaret M. Condron , David B. Teplow , Harald Steiner and Christian Haass
  More than 150 familial Alzheimer disease (FAD)-associated missense mutations in presenilins (PS1 and PS2), the catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase complex, cause aberrant amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production, by increasing the relative production of the highly amyloidogenic 42-amino acid variant. The molecular mechanism behind this pathological activity is unclear, and different possibilities ranging from a gain of function to a loss of function have been discussed. γ-Secretase, signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and SPP-like proteases (SPPLs) belong to the same family of GXGD-type intramembrane cleaving aspartyl proteases and share several functional similarities. We have introduced the FAD-associated PS1 G384A mutation, which occurs within the highly conserved GXGD motif of PS1 right next to the catalytically critical aspartate residue, into the corresponding GXGD motif of the signal peptide peptidase-like 2b (SPPL2b). Compared with wild-type SPPL2b, mutant SPPL2b slowed intramembrane proteolysis of tumor necrosis factor α and caused a relative increase of longer intracellular cleavage products. Because the N termini of the secreted counterparts remain unchanged, the mutation selectively affects the liberation of the intracellular processing products. In vitro experiments demonstrate that the apparent accumulation of longer intracellular cleavage products is the result of slowed sequential intramembrane cleavage. The longer cleavage products are still converted to shorter peptides, however only after prolonged incubation time. This suggests that FAD-associated PS mutation may also result in reduced intramembrane cleavage of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP). Indeed, in vitro experiments demonstrate slowed intramembrane proteolysis by γ-secretase containing PS1 with the G384A mutation. As compared with wild-type PS1, the mutation selectively slowed Aβ40 production, whereas Aβ42 generation remained unaffected. Thus, the PS1 G384A mutation causes a selective loss of function by slowing the processing pathway leading to the benign Aβ40.
  Kenjiro Ono , Margaret M. Condron , Lap Ho , Jun Wang , Wei Zhao , Giulio M. Pasinetti and David B. Teplow
  Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study the protective effects of red wine, experiments recently were executed in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. These studies showed that a commercially available grape seed polyphenolic extract, MegaNatural-AZ (MN), significantly attenuated AD-type cognitive deterioration and reduced cerebral amyloid deposition (Wang, J., Ho, L., Zhao, W., Ono, K., Rosensweig, C., Chen, L., Humala, N., Teplow, D. B., and Pasinetti, G. M. (2008) J. Neurosci. 28, 6388–6392). To elucidate the mechanistic bases for these observations, here we used CD spectroscopy, photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins, thioflavin T fluorescence, size exclusion chromatography, and electron microscopy to examine the effects of MN on the assembly of the two predominant disease-related amyloid β-protein alloforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42. We also examined the effects of MN on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity by assaying 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase activity in Aβ-treated, differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Initial studies revealed that MN blocked Aβ fibril formation. Subsequent evaluation of the assembly stage specificity of the effect showed that MN was able to inhibit protofibril formation, pre-protofibrillar oligomerization, and initial coil → α-helix/β-sheet secondary structure transitions. Importantly, MN had protective effects in assays of cytotoxicity in which MN was mixed with Aβ prior to peptide assembly or following assembly and just prior to peptide addition to cells. These data suggest that MN is worthy of consideration as a therapeutic agent for AD.
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